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Revision 24 - (show annotations)
Mon Oct 8 16:19:56 2007 UTC (13 years, 2 months ago) by dpavlin
File size: 16466 byte(s)
++ trunk/HISTORY	(local)
$Id: HISTORY,v 1.1256 2006/06/23 20:43:44 debug Exp $
20060219	Various minor updates. Removing the old MIPS16 skeleton code,
		because it will need to be rewritten for dyntrans anyway.
20060220-22	Removing the non-working dyntrans backend support.
		Continuing on the 64-bit dyntrans virtual memory generalization.
20060223	More work on the 64-bit vm generalization.
20060225	Beginning on MIPS dyntrans load/store instructions.
		Minor PPC updates (64-bit load/store, etc).
		Fixes for the variable-instruction-length framework, some
		minor AVR updates (a simple Hello World program works!).
		Beginning on a skeleton for automatically generating documen-
		tation (for devices etc.).
20060226	PPC updates (adding some more 64-bit instructions, etc).
		AVR updates (more instructions).
		FINALLY found and fixed the zs bug, making NetBSD/macppc
		accept the serial console.
20060301	Adding more AVR instructions.
20060304	Continuing on AVR-related stuff. Beginning on a framework for
		cycle-accurate device emulation. Adding an experimental "PAL
		TV" device (just a dummy so far).
20060305	Adding more AVR instructions.
		Adding a dummy epcom serial controller (for TS7200 emulation).
20060310	Removing the emul() command from configuration files, so only
		net() and machine() are supported.
		Minor progress on the MIPS dyntrans rewrite.
20060311	Continuing on the MIPS dyntrans rewrite (adding more
		instructions, etc).
20060315	Adding more instructions (sllv, srav, srlv, bgtz[l], blez[l],
		beql, bnel, slti[u], various loads and stores).
20060316	Removing the ALWAYS_SIGNEXTEND_32 option, since it was rarely
		Adding more MIPS dyntrans instructions, and fixing bugs.
20060318	Implementing fast loads/stores for MIPS dyntrans (big/little
		endian, 32-bit and 64-bit modes).
20060320	Making MIPS dyntrans the default configure option; use
		"--enable-oldmips" to use the old bintrans system.
		Adding MIPS dyntrans dmult[u]; minor updates.
20060322	Continuing... adding some more instructions.
		Adding a simple skeleton for demangling C++ "_ZN" symbols.
20060323	Moving src/debugger.c into a new directory (src/debugger/).
20060324	Fixing the hack used to load PPC ELFs (useful for relocated
		Linux/ppc kernels), and adding a dummy G3 machine mode.
20060325-26	Beginning to experiment with GDB remote serial protocol
		connections; adding a -G command line option for selecting
		which TCP port to listen to.
20060330	Beginning a major cleanup to replace things like "0x%016llx"
		with more correct "0x%016"PRIx64, etc.
		Continuing on the GDB remote serial protocol support.
20060331	More cleanup, and some minor GDB remote progress.
20060402	Adding a hack to the configure script, to allow compilation
		on systems that lack PRIx64 etc.
20060406	Removing the temporary FreeBSD/arm hack in dev_ns16550.c and
		replacing it with a better fix from Olivier Houchard.
20060407	A remote debugger (gdb or ddd) can now start and stop the
		emulator using the GDB remote serial protocol, and registers
		and memory can be read. MIPS only for now.
20060408	More GDB progress: single-stepping also works, and also adding
		support for ARM, PowerPC, and Alpha targets.
		Continuing on the delay-slot-across-page-boundary issue.
20060412	Minor update: beginning to add support for the SPARC target
		to the remote GDB functionality.
20060414	Various MIPS updates: adding more instructions for dyntrans
		(eret, add), and making some exceptions work. Fixing a bug
		in dmult[u].
		Implementing the first SPARC instructions (sethi, or).
20060415	Adding "magic trap" instructions so that PROM calls can be
		software emulated in MIPS dyntrans.
		Adding more MIPS dyntrans instructions (ddiv, dadd) and
		fixing another bug in dmult.
20060416	More MIPS dyntrans progress: adding [d]addi, movn, movz, dsllv,
		rfi, an ugly hack for supporting R2000/R3000 style faked caches,
		preliminary interrupt support, and various other updates and
20060417	Adding more SPARC instructions (add, sub, sll[x], sra[x],
		srl[x]), and useful SPARC header definitions.
		Adding the first (trivial) x86/AMD64 dyntrans instructions (nop,
		cli/sti, stc/clc, std/cld, simple mov, inc ax). Various other
		x86 updates related to variable instruction length stuff.
		Adding unaligned loads/stores to the MIPS dyntrans mode (but
		still using the pre-dyntrans (slow) imlementation).
20060419	Fixing a MIPS dyntrans exception-in-delay-slot bug.
		Removing the old "show opcode statistics" functionality, since
		it wasn't really useful and isn't implemented for dyntrans.
		Single-stepping (or running with instruction trace) now looks
		ok with dyntrans with delay-slot architectures.
20060420	Minor hacks (removing the -B command line option when compiled
		for non-bintrans, and some other very minor updates).
		Adding (slow) MIPS dyntrans load-linked/store-conditional.
20060422	Applying fixes for bugs discovered by Nils Weller's nwcc
		(static DEC memmap => now per machine, and adding an extern
		keyword in cpu_arm_instr.c).
		Finally found one of the MIPS dyntrans bugs that I've been
		looking for (copy/paste spelling error BIG vs LITTLE endian in
		cpu_mips_instr_loadstore.c for 16-bit fast stores).
		FINALLY found the major MIPS dyntrans bug: slti vs sltiu
		signed/unsigned code in cpu_mips_instr.c. :-)
		Adding more MIPS dyntrans instructions (lwc1, swc1, bgezal[l],
		ctc1, tlt[u], tge[u], tne, beginning on rdhwr).
		NetBSD/hpcmips can now reach userland when using dyntrans :-)
		Adding some more x86 dyntrans instructions.
		Finally removed the old Alpha-specific virtual memory code,
		and replaced it with the generic 64-bit version.
		Beginning to add disassembly support for SPECIAL3 MIPS opcodes.
20060423	Continuing on the delay-slot-across-page-boundary issue;
		adding an end_of_page2 ic slot (like I had planned before, but
		had removed for some reason).
		Adding a quick-and-dirty fallback to legacy coprocessor 1
		code (i.e. skipping dyntrans implementation for now).
		NetBSD/hpcmips and NetBSD/pmax (when running on an emulated
		R4400) can now be installed and run. :-)  (Many bugs left
		to fix, though.)
		Adding more MIPS dyntrans instructions: madd[u], msub[u].
		Cleaning up the SPECIAL2 vs R5900/TX79/C790 "MMI" opcode
		maps somewhat (disassembly and dyntrans instruction decoding).
20060424	Adding an isa_revision field to mips_cpu_types.h, and making
		sure that SPECIAL3 opcodes cause Reserved Instruction
		exceptions on MIPS32/64 revisions lower than 2.
		Adding the SPARC 'ba', 'call', 'jmpl/retl', 'and', and 'xor'
20060425	Removing the -m command line option ("run at most x 
		instructions") and -T ("single_step_on_bad_addr"), because
		they never worked correctly with dyntrans anyway.
		Freshening up the man page.
20060428	Adding more MIPS dyntrans instructions: bltzal[l], idle.
		Enabling MIPS dyntrans compare interrupts.
20060429	FINALLY found the weird dyntrans bug, causing NetBSD etc. to
		behave strangely: some floating point code (conditional
		coprocessor branches) could not be reused from the old
		non-dyntrans code. The "quick-and-dirty fallback" only appeared
		to work. Fixing by implementing bc1* for MIPS dyntrans.
		More MIPS instructions: [d]sub, sdc1, ldc1, dmtc1, dmfc1, cfc0.
		Freshening up MIPS floating point disassembly appearance.
20060430	Continuing on C790/R5900/TX79 disassembly; implementing 128-bit
		"por" and "pextlw".
20060504	Disabling -u (userland emulation) unless compiled as unstable
		development version.
		Beginning on freshening up the testmachine include files,
		to make it easier to reuse those files (placing them in
		src/include/testmachine/), and beginning on a set of "demos"
		or "tutorials" for the testmachine functionality.
		Minor updates to the MIPS GDB remote protocol stub.
		Refreshing doc/experiments.html and gdb_remote.html.
		Enabling Alpha emulation in the stable release configuration,
		even though no guest OSes for Alpha can run yet.
20060505	Adding a generic 'settings' object, which will contain
		references to settable variables (which will later be possible
		to access using the debugger).
20060506	Updating dev_disk and corresponding demo/documentation (and
		switching from SCSI to IDE disk types, so it actually works
		with current test machines :-).
20060510	Adding a -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE hack for 64-bit Linux hosts,
		so that fseeko() doesn't give a warning.
		Updating the section about how dyntrans works (the "runnable
		IR") in doc/intro.html.
		Instruction updates (some x64=1 checks, some more R5900
		dyntrans stuff: better mul/mult separation from MIPS32/64,
		adding ei and di).
		Updating MIPS cpuregs.h to a newer one (from NetBSD).
		Adding more MIPS dyntrans instructions: deret, ehb.
20060514	Adding disassembly and beginning implementation of SPARC wr
		and wrpr instructions.
20060515	Adding a SUN SPARC machine mode, with dummy SS20 and Ultra1
		machines. Adding the 32-bit "rd psr" instruction.
20060517	Disassembly support for the general SPARC rd instruction.
		Partial implementation of the cmp (subcc) instruction.
		Some other minor updates (making sure that R5900 processors
		start up with the EIE bit enabled, otherwise Linux/playstation2
		receives no interrupts).
20060519	Minor MIPS updates/cleanups.
20060521	Moving the MeshCube machine into evbmips; this seems to work
		reasonably well with a snapshot of a NetBSD MeshCube kernel.
		Cleanup/fix of MIPS config0 register initialization.
20060529	Minor MIPS fixes, including a sign-extension fix to the
		unaligned load/store code, which makes NetBSD/pmax on R3000
		work better with dyntrans. (Ultrix and Linux/DECstation still
		don't work, though.)
20060530	Minor updates to the Alpha machine mode: adding an AlphaBook
		mode, an LCA bus (forwarding accesses to an ISA bus), etc.
20060531	Applying a bugfix for the MIPS dyntrans sc[d] instruction from
		Ondrej Palkovsky. (Many thanks.)
20060601	Minifix to allow ARM immediate msr instruction to not give
		an error for some valid values.
		More Alpha updates.
20060602	Some minor Alpha updates.
20060603	Adding the Alpha cmpbge instruction. NetBSD/alpha prints its
		first boot messages :-) on an emulated Alphabook 1.
20060612	Minor updates; adding a dev_ether.h include file for the
		testmachine ether device. Continuing the hunt for the dyntrans
		bug which makes Linux and Ultrix on DECstation behave
		strangely... FINALLY found it! It seems to be related to
		invalidation of the translation cache, on tlbw{r,i}. There
		also seems to be some remaining interrupt-related problems.
20060614	Correcting the implementation of ldc1/sdc1 for MIPS dyntrans
		(so that it uses 16 32-bit registers if the FR bit in the
		status register is not set).
		Removing the old MIPS interpretation mode.
		Removing the MFHILO_DELAY and instruction delay stuff, because
		they wouldn't work with dyntrans anyway.
20060617	Some documentation updates (adding "NetBSD-archive" to some
		URLs, and new Debian/DECstation installation screenshots).
		Removing the "tracenull" and "enable-caches" configure options.
		Improving MIPS dyntrans performance somewhat (only invalidate
		translations if necessary, on writes to the entryhi register,
		instead of doing it for all cop0 writes).
20060618	More cleanup after the removal of the old MIPS emulation.
		Trying to fix the MIPS dyntrans performance bugs/bottlenecks;
		only semi-successful so far (for R3000).
20060620	Minor update to allow clean compilation again on Tru64/Alpha.
20060622	MIPS cleanup and fixes (removing the pc_last stuff, which
		doesn't make sense with dyntrans anyway, and fixing a cross-
		page-delay-slot-with-exception case in end_of_page).
		Removing the old max_random_cycles_per_chunk stuff, and the
		concept of cycles vs instructions for MIPS emulation.
		FINALLY found and fixed the bug which caused NetBSD/pmax
		clocks to behave strangely (it was a load to the zero register,
		which was treated as a NOP; now it is treated as a load to a
		dummy scratch register).
20060623	Increasing the dyntrans chunk size back to
		Preparing for a quick release, even though there are known
		bugs, and performance for non-R3000 MIPS emulation is very
		poor. :-/
		Reverting to half the dyntrans chunk size again, because
		NetBSD/cats seemed less stable with full size chunks. :(
		NetBSD/sgimips 3.0 can now run :-)  (With release 0.3.8, only
		NetBSD/sgimips 2.1 worked, not 3.0.)

==============  RELEASE 0.4.0  ==============

1 .\" $Id: gxemul.1,v 1.65 2006/06/22 13:22:40 debug Exp $
2 .\"
3 .\" Copyright (C) 2004-2006 Anders Gavare. All rights reserved.
4 .\"
5 .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
6 .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
7 .\"
8 .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
9 .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
10 .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
11 .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
12 .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
13 .\" 3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
14 .\" derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
15 .\"
27 .\"
28 .\"
29 .\" This is a minimal man page for GXemul. Process this file with
30 .\" groff -man -Tascii gxemul.1 or nroff -man gxemul.1
31 .\"
32 .Dd JUNE 2006
33 .Dt GXEMUL 1
34 .Os
35 .Sh NAME
36 .Nm gxemul
37 .Nd an experimental machine emulator
39 .Nm
40 .Op machine, other, and general options
41 .Op file Ar ...
42 .Nm
43 .Op general options
44 .Ar @configfile
45 .\" TODO: Reenable this once userland emulation works:
46 .\" .Nm
47 .\" .Op userland, other, and general options
48 .\" .Ar file Op Ar args ...
50 .Nm
51 is an experimental instruction-level machine emulator. Several
52 emulation modes are available. In some modes, processors and surrounding
53 hardware components are emulated well enough to let unmodified operating
54 systems (e.g. NetBSD) run inside the emulator as if they were running on a
55 real machine.
56 .Pp
57 Processors (ARM, MIPS, PowerPC) are emulated using a kind of dynamic
58 translation system. Performance is somewhere between traditional
59 interpretation and recompilation into native code. However, the dynamic
60 translation system used in GXemul does not (currently) generate native
61 code, and thus does not require platform-specific back-ends. In plain
62 English, this means that the dyntrans system works on any host architecture.
63 .Pp
64 The emulator can be invoked in the following ways:
65 .Pp
66 1. When emulating a complete machine, configuration options can be entered
67 directly on the command line.
68 .Pp
69 2. Options can be read from a configuration file.
70 .\" .Pp
71 .\" 3. When emulating a userland environment (syscall-only emulation, not
72 .\" emulating complete machines), then the program name and its argument
73 .\" should be given on the command line. (This mode doesn't really work yet,
74 .\" and is disabled for stable release builds.)
75 .Pp
76 The easiest way to use the emulator is to supply settings directly on the
77 command line. The most important thing you need to supply is the
78 file argument. This is the name of a binary file (an ELF, a.out, COFF/ECOFF,
79 SREC, or a raw binary image) which you wish to run in the emulator. This file
80 might be an operating system kernel, or perhaps a ROM image file.
81 .Pp
82 If more than one filename is supplied, all files are loaded into memory,
83 and the entry point (if available) is taken from the last file.
84 .Pp
85 Apart from the name of a binary file, it is also necessary to select
86 which specific emulation mode to use. For example, a MIPS-based machine
87 from DEC (a DECstation) is very different from a MIPS-based machine
88 from SGI. Use
89 .Nm
90 .Fl H
91 to get a list of available emulation modes.
92 .Pp
93 There are two exceptions to the normal invocation usage mentioned above.
94 The first is for DECstation emulation: if you have a bootable
95 DECstation harddisk or CDROM image, then just supplying the diskimage via
96 the
97 .Fl d
98 option is sufficient. (The filename of the kernel can then be
99 skipped, as the emulator runs the bootblocks from the diskimage directly and
100 doesn't need the kernel as a separate file.)
101 The second is if you supply an ISO9660 CDROM disk image. You may then use
102 the
103 .Fl j
104 option to indicate which file on the CDROM filesystem that should be
105 loaded into emulated memory.
106 .Pp
107 Machine selection options:
108 .Bl -tag -width Ds
109 .It Fl E Ar t
110 Try to emulate machine type
111 .Ar "t".
112 This option is not always needed, if the
113 .Fl e
114 option uniquely selects a machine.
115 (Use
116 .Fl H
117 to get a list of types.)
118 .It Fl e Ar st
119 Try to emulate machine subtype
120 .Ar "st".
121 Use this together with
122 .Fl E .
123 (This option is not always needed, if a machine type has no subtypes.)
124 .El
125 .Pp
126 Other options:
127 .Bl -tag -width Ds
128 .\" The -A command line option is DEPRECATED and will be removed soon.
129 .\" .It Fl A
130 .\" Disable load/store alignment checks in some cases. This might give a small
131 .\" increase in performance, but the emulator will not run correctly if the
132 .\" emulated code actually tries to do unaligned loads or stores. (This option
133 .\" is only meaningful when emulating MIPS CPUs, when the host architecture is
134 .\" Alpha or i386, and binary translation is enabled.)
135 .\" .It Fl B
136 .\" Disable native translation backends. By default, translation backends are
137 .\" used if the host+target architecture combination is supported. Currently,
138 .\" the only supported host architecture for the old bintrans system (used
139 .\" when emulating MIPS processors) are Alpha and i386. The old bintrans
140 .\" system will hopefully be removed some day.
141 .It Fl C Ar x
142 Try to emulate a specific CPU type,
143 .Ar "x".
144 This overrides the default CPU type for the machine being emulated.
145 (Use
146 .Fl H
147 to get a list of available CPU types.)
148 .It Fl d Ar [modifiers:]filename
149 Add
150 .Ar filename
151 as a disk image. By adding one or more modifier characters and then a
152 colon (":") as a prefix to
153 .Ar filename,
154 you can modify the way the disk image is treated. Available modifiers are:
155 .Bl -tag -width Ds
156 .It b
157 Specifies that this is a boot device.
158 .It c
159 CD-ROM.
160 .It d
161 DISK (this is the default).
162 .It f
164 .It gH;S;
165 Override the default geometry; use H heads and S sectors-per-track.
166 (The number of cylinders is calculated automatically.)
167 .It i
168 IDE. (This is the default for most machine types.)
169 .It r
170 Read-only (don't allow changes to be written to the file).
171 .It s
172 SCSI.
173 .It t
174 Tape.
175 .It 0-7
176 Force a specific ID number.
177 .El
178 .Pp
179 For SCSI devices, the ID number is the SCSI ID. For IDE harddisks, the ID
180 number has the following meaning:
181 .Bl -tag -width Ds
182 .It 0
183 Primary master.
184 .It 1
185 Primary slave.
186 .It 2
187 Secondary master.
188 .It 3
189 Secondary slave.
190 .El
191 .Pp
192 Unless otherwise specified, filenames ending with ".iso" or ".cdr" are
193 assumed to be CDROM images. Most others are assumed to be disks. Depending
194 on which machine is being emulated, the default for disks can be either
195 SCSI or IDE. Some disk images that are very small are assumed to be floppy
196 disks. (If you are not happy with the way a disk image is detected, then
197 you need to use explicit prefixes to force a specific type.)
198 .Pp
199 For floppies, the gH;S; prefix is ignored. Instead, the number of
200 heads and cylinders are assumed to be 2 and 80, respectively, and the
201 number of sectors per track is calculated automatically. (This works for
202 720KB, 1.2MB, 1.44MB, and 2.88MB floppies.)
203 .It Fl G Ar port
204 Pause at startup, and listen to TCP port
205 .Ar port
206 for incoming remote GDB connections. The emulator starts up in paused
207 mode, and it is up to the remote GDB instance to start the session.
208 .It Fl I Ar x
209 Emulate clock interrupts at
210 .Ar x
211 Hz. (This affects emulated clock devices only, not actual runtime speed.
212 This disables automatic clock adjustments, which is otherwise turned on.)
213 (This option is probably only valid for DECstation emulation.)
214 .It Fl i
215 Display each instruction as it is being executed.
216 .It Fl J
217 Disable some speed tricks. This usually means disabling the use of
218 dyntrans "instruction combinations".
219 .It Fl j Ar n
220 Set the name of the kernel to
221 .Ar "n".
222 When booting from an ISO9660 filesystem, the emulator will try to boot
223 using this file. (In some emulation modes, eg. DECstation, this name is passed
224 along to the boot program. Useful names are "bsd" for OpenBSD/pmax,
225 "vmunix" for Ultrix, or "vmsprite" for Sprite.)
226 .It Fl M Ar m
227 Emulate
228 .Ar m
229 MBs of physical RAM. This overrides the default amount of RAM for the
230 selected machine type.
231 .It Fl N
232 Display the number of executed instructions per second on average, at
233 regular intervals.
234 .It Fl n Ar nr
235 Set the number of processors in the machine, for SMP experiments.
236 .Pp
237 Note: The emulator allocates quite a
238 lot of virtual memory for per-CPU translation tables. On 64-bit hosts,
239 this is normally not a problem. On 32-bit hosts, this can use up all
240 available virtual userspace memory. The solution is to either run the
241 emulator on a 64-bit host, or limit the number of emulated CPUs to a
242 reasonable number (say, less than 32).
243 .Pp
244 Note 2: SMP simulation is not working very well yet; multiple processors
245 are simulated, but synchronization between the processors does not map
246 very well to how real-world SMP systems work.
247 .It Fl O
248 Force a "netboot" (tftp instead of disk), even when a disk image is
249 present (for DECstation, SGI, and ARC emulation).
250 .It Fl o Ar arg
251 Set the boot argument (mostly useful for DEC, ARC, or SGI emulation).
252 Default
253 .Ar arg
254 for DEC is "-a", for ARC/SGI it is "-aN", and for CATS it is "-A".
255 .It Fl p Ar pc
256 Add a breakpoint.
257 .Ar pc
258 can be a symbol, or a numeric value. (Remember to use the "0x" prefix for
259 hexadecimal values.)
260 .It Fl Q
261 Disable the built-in PROM emulation. This is useful for
262 experimenting with running raw ROM images from real machines.
263 .It Fl R
264 Use a random bootstrap cpu, instead of CPU nr 0. (For SMP experiments.)
265 .It Fl r
266 Dump register contents for every executed instruction.
267 .It Fl S
268 Initialize emulated RAM to random data, instead of zeroes. This option
269 is useful when trying to trigger bugs in a program that occur because the
270 program assumed that uninitialized memory contains zeros. (Use with
271 care.)
272 .It Fl t
273 Show a trace tree of all function calls being made.
274 .It Fl U
275 Enable slow_serial_interrupts_hack_for_linux.
276 .It Fl X
277 Use X11. This option enables graphical framebuffers.
278 .It Fl x
279 Open up new xterms for emulated serial ports. The default behaviour is to
280 open up xterms when using configuration files, or if X11 is enabled. When
281 starting up a simple emulation session with settings directly on the
282 command line, and neither
283 .Fl X
284 nor
285 .Fl x
286 is used, then all output is confined to the terminal that
287 .Nm
288 started in.
289 .It Fl Y Ar n
290 Scale down framebuffer windows by
291 .Ar n
292 x
293 .Ar n
294 times. This option is useful when emulating a very large framebuffer, and
295 the actual display is of lower resolution. If
296 .Ar n
297 is negative, then there will be no scaledown, but emulation of certain
298 graphic controllers will be scaled up
299 by
300 .Ar -n
301 times instead. E.g. Using
302 .Ar -2
303 with VGA text mode emulation will result in 80x25 character cells rendered
304 in a 1280x800 window, instead of the normal resolution of 640x400.
305 .It Fl Z Ar n
306 Set the number of graphics cards, for emulating a dual-head or tripple-head
307 environment. (Only for DECstation emulation so far.)
308 .It Fl z Ar disp
309 Add
310 .Ar disp
311 as an X11 display to use for framebuffers.
312 .El
313 .Pp
314 .\" Userland options:
315 .\" .Bl -tag -width Ds
316 .\" .It Fl u Ar emul-mode
317 .\" Userland-only (syscall) emulation. (Use
318 .\" .Fl H
319 .\" to get a list of available emulation modes.) Some (but not all) of the
320 .\" options listed under Other options above can also be used with
321 .\" userland emulation.
322 .\" .El
323 .\" .Pp
324 General options:
325 .Bl -tag -width Ds
326 .It Fl c Ar cmd
327 Add
328 .Ar cmd
329 as a command to run before starting the simulation. A similar effect can
330 be achieved by using the
331 .Fl V
332 option, and entering the commands manually.
333 .It Fl D
334 Guarantee fully deterministic behavior. Normally, the emulator calls
335 srandom() with a seed based on the current time at startup. When the
336 .Fl D
337 option is used, the srandom() call is skipped, which should cause two
338 subsequent invocations of the emulator to be identical, if all other
339 settings are identical and no user input is taking place. (If this option
340 is used, then
341 .Fl I
342 must also be used.)
343 .It Fl H
344 Display a list of available CPU types, machine types, and userland
345 emulation modes. (Most of these don't work. Please read the documentation
346 included in the
347 .Nm
348 distribution for details on which modes that actually work. Userland
349 emulation is not included in stable release builds, since it doesn't work
350 yet.)
351 .It Fl h
352 Display a list of all available command line options.
353 .It Fl K
354 Force the single-step debugger to be entered at the end of a simulation.
355 .It Fl q
356 Quiet mode; this suppresses startup messages.
357 .\".It Fl s
358 .\"For MIPS emulation: Show opcode usage statistics after the simulation.
359 .\"For non-MIPS emulation (i.e. using dyntrans): Save statistics to a file
360 .\"at regular intervals of which physical addresses that were executed.
361 .It Fl V
362 Start up in the single-step debugger, paused.
363 .It Fl v
364 Increase verbosity (show more debug messages). This option can be used
365 multiple times.
366 .El
367 .Pp
368 Configuration file startup:
369 .Bl -tag -width Ds
370 .It @ Ar configfile
371 Start an emulation based on the contents of
372 .Ar "configfile".
373 .El
374 .Pp
375 For more information, please read the documentation in the doc/
376 subdirectory of the
377 .Nm
378 distribution.
380 The following command will start NetBSD/pmax on an emulated DECstation
381 5000/200 (3MAX):
382 .Pp
383 .Dl "gxemul -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img"
384 .Pp
385 nbsd_pmax.img should be a raw disk image containing a bootable
386 NetBSD/pmax filesystem.
387 .Pp
388 The following command will start an emulation session based on settings in
389 the configuration file "mysession". The -v option tells gxemul to be
390 verbose.
391 .Pp
392 .Dl "gxemul -v @mysession"
393 .Pp
394 If you have compiled the small Hello World program mentioned in the
395 .Nm
396 documentation, the following command will start up an
397 emulated test machine in "paused" mode:
398 .Pp
399 .Dl "gxemul -E testmips -V hello_mips"
400 .Pp
401 Paused mode means that you enter the interactive single-step debugger
402 directly at startup, instead of launching the Hello World program.
403 .Pp
404 The paused mode is also what should be used when running "unknown" files
405 for the first time in the emulator. E.g. if you have a binary which you
406 think is some kind of MIPS ROM image, then you can try the following:
407 .Pp
408 .Dl "gxemul -vv -E baremips -V 0xbfc00000:image.raw"
409 .Pp
410 You can then use the single-stepping functionality of the built-in
411 debugger to run the code in the ROM image, to see how it behaves. Based on
412 that, you can deduce what machine type it was actually from (the
413 baremips machine is not a real machine), and perhaps try again with
414 another emulation mode.
415 .Pp
416 In general, however, real ROM images require much more emulation detail
417 than GXemul provides, so they can usually not run.
418 .Pp
419 Please read the documentation for more details.
420 .Sh BUGS
421 There are many bugs. Some of the known bugs are mentioned in the TODO
422 file in the
423 .Nm
424 source distribution, some are marked as TODO in the source code itself.
425 .Pp
426 Userland (syscall-only) emulation doesn't really work yet.
427 .Pp
428 The documentation sometimes only reflects the way things worked with
429 the old MIPS emulation mode (prior to 0.4.0), and it is incorrect when
430 applied to current releases.
431 .Pp
432 .Nm
433 is in general not cycle-accurate; it does not simulate individual
434 pipe-line stages or penalties caused by branch-prediction misses or
435 cache misses, so it cannot be used for accurate simulation of any actual
436 real-world processor.
437 .Pp
438 .Nm
439 is not timing-accurate, i.e. clocks inside the emulator are in general
440 not at all synched with clocks in the real world. There are a few
441 exceptions to this rule (the mc146818 device tries to automagically
442 adjust emulated timer ticks to actual emulation speed).
443 .Sh AUTHOR
444 GXemul is Copyright (C) 2003-2006 Anders Gavare <anders@gavare.se>
445 .Pp
446 See http://gavare.se/gxemul/ for more information. For other Copyright
447 messages, see the corresponding parts of the source code and/or
448 documentation.

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