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20051126	Cobalt and PReP now work with the 21143 NIC.
		Continuing on Alpha dyntrans things.
		Fixing some more left-shift-by-24 to unsigned.
20051127	Working on OpenFirmware emulation; major cleanup/redesign.
		Progress on MacPPC emulation: NetBSD detects two CPUs (when
		running with -n 2), framebuffer output (for text) works.
		Adding quick-hack Bandit PCI controller and "gc" interrupt
		controller for MacPPC.
20051128	Changing from a Bandit to a Uni-North controller for macppc.
		Continuing on OpenFirmware and MacPPC emulation in general
		(obio controller, and wdc attached to the obio seems to work).
20051129	More work on MacPPC emulation (adding a dummy ADB controller).
		Continuing the PCI bus cleanup (endianness and tag composition)
		and rewriting all PCI controllers' access functions.
20051130	Various minor PPC dyntrans optimizations.
		Manually inlining some parts of the framebuffer redraw routine.
		Slowly beginning the conversion of the old MIPS emulation into
		dyntrans (but this will take quite some time to get right).
		Generalizing quick_pc_to_pointers.
20051201	Documentation update (David Muse has made available a kernel
		which simplifies Debian/DECstation installation).
		Continuing on the ADB bus controller.
20051202	Beginning a rewrite of the Zilog serial controller (dev_zs).
20051203	Continuing on the zs rewrite (now called dev_z8530); conversion
		to devinit style.
		Reworking some of the input-only vs output-only vs input-output
		details of src/console.c, better warning messages, and adding
		a debug dump.
		Removing the concept of "device state"; it wasn't really used.
		Changing some debug output (-vv should now be used to show all
		details about devices and busses; not shown during normal
		startup anymore).
		Beginning on some SPARC instruction disassembly support.
20051204	Minor PPC updates (WALNUT skeleton stuff).
		Continuing on the MIPS dyntrans rewrite.
		More progress on the ADB controller (a keyboard is "detected"
		by NetBSD and OpenBSD).
		Downgrading OpenBSD/arc as a guest OS from "working" to
		"almost working" in the documentation.
		Progress on Algor emulation ("v3" PCI controller).
20051205	Minor updates.
20051207	Sorting devices according to address; this reduces complexity
		of device lookups from O(n) to O(log n) in memory_rw (but no
		real performance increase (yet) in experiments).
20051210	Beginning the work on native dyntrans backends (by making a
		simple skeleton; so far only for Alpha hosts).
20051211	Some very minor SPARC updates.
20051215	Fixing a bug in the MIPS mul (note: not mult) instruction,
		so it also works with non-64-bit emulation. (Thanks to Alec
		Voropay for noticing the problem.)
20051216	More work on the fake/empty/simple/skeleton/whatever backend;
		performance doesn't increase, so this isn't really worth it,
		but it was probably worth it to prepare for a real backend
		later.
20051219	More instr call statistics gathering and analysis stuff.
20051220	Another fix for MIPS 'mul'. Also converting mul and {d,}cl{o,z}
		to dyntrans.
		memory_ppc.c syntax error fix (noticed by Peter Valchev).
		Beginning to move out machines from src/machine.c into
		individual files in src/machines (in a way similar to the
		autodev system for devices).
20051222	Updating the documentation regarding NetBSD/pmax 3.0.
20051223	- " - NetBSD/cats 3.0.
20051225	- " - NetBSD/hpcmips 3.0.
20051226	Continuing on the machine registry redesign.
		Adding support for ARM rrx (33-bit rotate).
		Fixing some signed/unsigned issues (exposed by gcc -W).
20051227	Fixing the bug which prevented a NetBSD/prep 3.0 install kernel
		from starting (triggered when an mtmsr was the last instruction
		on a page). Unfortunately not enough to get the kernel to run
		as well as the 2.1 kernels did.
20051230	Some dyntrans refactoring.
20051231	Continuing on the machine registry redesign.
20060101-10	Continuing... moving more machines. Moving MD interrupt stuff
		from machine.c into a new src/machines/interrupts.c.
20060114	Adding various mvmeppc machine skeletons.
20060115	Continuing on mvme* stuff. NetBSD/mvmeppc prints boot messages
		(for MVME1600) and reaches the root device prompt, but no
		specific hardware devices are emulated yet.
20060116	Minor updates to the mvme1600 emulation mode; the Eagle PCI bus
		seems to work without much modification, and a 21143 can be
		detected, interrupts might work (but untested so far).
		Adding a fake MK48Txx (mkclock) device, for NetBSD/mvmeppc.
20060121	Adding an aux control register for ARM. (A BIG thank you to
		Olivier Houchard for tracking down this bug.)
20060122	Adding more ARM instructions (smulXY), and dev_iq80321_7seg.
20060124	Adding disassembly of more ARM instructions (mia*, mra/mar),
		and some semi-bogus XScale and i80321 registers.
20060201-02	Various minor updates. Moving the last machines out of
		machine.c.
20060204	Adding a -c command line option, for running debugger commands
		before the simulation starts, but after all files have been
		loaded.
		Minor iq80321-related updates.
20060209	Minor hacks (DEVINIT macro, etc).
		Preparing for the generalization of the 64-bit dyntrans address
		translation subsystem.
20060216	Adding ARM ldrd (double-register load).
20060217	Continuing on various ARM-related stuff.
20060218	More progress on the ATA/wdc emulation for NetBSD/iq80321.
		NetBSD/evbarm can now be installed :-)  Updating the docs, etc.
		Continuing on Algor emulation.

==============  RELEASE 0.3.8  ==============


1 <html><head><title>Gavare's eXperimental Emulator:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Installing and running "guest OSes"</title>
2 <meta name="robots" content="noarchive,nofollow,noindex"></head>
3 <body bgcolor="#f8f8f8" text="#000000" link="#4040f0" vlink="#404040" alink="#ff0000">
4 <table border=0 width=100% bgcolor="#d0d0d0"><tr>
5 <td width=100% align=center valign=center><table border=0 width=100%><tr>
6 <td align="left" valign=center bgcolor="#d0efff"><font color="#6060e0" size="6">
7 <b>Gavare's eXperimental Emulator:</b></font><br>
8 <font color="#000000" size="6"><b>Installing and running "guest OSes"</b>
9 </font></td></tr></table></td></tr></table><p>
10
11 <!--
12
13 $Id: guestoses.html,v 1.124 2006/02/18 21:03:10 debug Exp $
14
15 Copyright (C) 2003-2006 Anders Gavare. All rights reserved.
16
17 Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
18 modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
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20 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
21 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
22 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
23 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
24 documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
25 3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
26 derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
27
28 THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
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31 ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
32 FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
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35 HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
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37 OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
38 SUCH DAMAGE.
39
40 -->
41
42
43 <a href="./">Back to the index</a>
44
45 <p><br>
46 <h2>Installing and running "guest OSes"</h2>
47
48 <p>
49 <ul>
50 <li><a href="#generalnotes">General notes on running "guest OSes"</a>
51 <li><a href="#netbsdpmaxinstall">NetBSD/pmax</a>
52 <li><a href="#netbsdarcinstall">NetBSD/arc</a>
53 <li><a href="#netbsdhpcmipsinstall">NetBSD/hpcmips</a>
54 <li><a href="#netbsdcobaltinstall">NetBSD/cobalt</a>
55 <li><a href="#netbsdevbmipsinstall">NetBSD/evbmips</a>
56 <li><a href="#netbsdsgimips">NetBSD/sgimips</a>
57 <li><a href="#netbsdcatsinstall">NetBSD/cats</a>
58 <li><a href="#netbsdevbarminstall">NetBSD/evbarm</a>
59 <li><a href="#netbsdprepinstall">NetBSD/prep</a>
60 <li><a href="#openbsdpmaxinstall">OpenBSD/pmax</a>
61 <li><a href="#openbsdcatsinstall">OpenBSD/cats</a>
62 <li><a href="#ultrixinstall">Ultrix/RISC</a>
63 <li><a href="#sprite">Sprite for DECstation</a>
64 <li><a href="#declinux">Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation</a>
65 <li><a href="#declinuxredhat">Redhat Linux for DECstation</a>
66 </ul>
67
68 <p>In addition to the "working" guest operating systems listed above,
69 you might find the following information interesting:
70 <ul>
71 <li><a href="#mach">Mach/PMAX</a>
72 <li><a href="#openbsdsgiinstall">OpenBSD/sgi</a>
73 <li><a href="#openbsdarcinstall">OpenBSD/arc</a>
74 <li><a href="#debiancats">Debian GNU/Linux for CATS</a>
75 <li><a href="#netbsdnetwinderinstall">NetBSD/netwinder</a>
76 </ul>
77
78
79
80
81
82
83 <p><br>
84 <a name="generalnotes"></a>
85 <h3>General notes on running "guest OSes":</h3>
86
87 The emulator works well enough to run complete operating systems. These
88 are often refered to as "guest" operating systems.
89
90 <p>
91 Although it is possible to let a guest OS access real hardware, such as
92 harddisks, it is much more flexible and attractive to simulate harddisks
93 using files residing in the host's filesystem. On Unix-like systems, files
94 may contain holes, which makes this really simple. To the guest operating
95 system, the harddisk image looks and acts like a real disk.
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104 <p><br>
105 <a name="netbsdpmaxinstall"></a>
106 <h3>NetBSD/pmax:</h3>
107
108 <p>
109 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
110 <a href="20050317-example.png"><img src="20050317-example_small.png"></a>
111
112 <p>To install <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/pmax/">NetBSD/pmax</a>
113 onto a harddisk image in the emulator, follow these instructions:
114
115 <p><ol start="1">
116 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
117 that NetBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
118 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_pmax.img bs=1 count=512 seek=1900000000</b>
119
120 </pre>
121 </ol>
122
123 <p>
124 From this point, there are two separate ways to continue the installation.
125 You can either download a CD-ROM iso image (and let the installation
126 program copy files from the CD-ROM image to the harddisk image), or you
127 can install via ftp. For an installation from a CD-ROM image, follow these
128 steps:
129 <p>
130 <ol start="2">
131
132 <li>Download a NetBSD CD-ROM iso image:<pre>
133 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/pmaxcd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/pmaxcd.iso</a>
134 or
135 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/3.0/pmaxcd-3.0.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/3.0/pmaxcd-3.0.iso</a>
136
137 </pre>
138 <li>Start the emulator like this:<pre>
139 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img -d bc:pmaxcd-3.0.iso</b>
140 (or <b>pmaxcd.iso</b>)
141 </pre>
142 and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real
143 DECstation. Remember to choose <tt>vt100</tt> as your terminal
144 type, and not <tt>rcons</tt>.
145 </ol>
146 <p>
147 For an ftp install, substitute steps 2 and 3 above with these:
148 <p>
149 <ol start="2">
150
151 <li>Download a NetBSD pmax INSTALL kernel:<pre>
152 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz</a>
153 or
154 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz</a>
155
156 </pre>
157 <li>Start the emulator like this:<pre>
158 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img -O netbsd-INSTALL.gz</b>
159 </pre>
160 and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real
161 DECstation. Remember to choose <tt>vt100</tt> as your terminal
162 type, and not <tt>rcons</tt>. Suitable networking parameters are as
163 follows:<pre>
164 Which device shall I use? [le0]: <b>le0</b>
165 ..
166 Your DNS domain: <b>mydomain.com</b>
167 Your host name: <b>foo</b>
168 Your IPv4 number: <b>10.0.0.1</b>
169 IPv4 Netmask [0xff000000]: <b>0xff000000</b>
170 IPv4 gateway: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
171 IPv4 name server: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
172 </pre>
173 (If using 10.0.0.254 as the nameserver fails, then try entering the
174 IP number of a real-world nameserver instead.)
175 </ol>
176
177 <p>If you want to use a graphical framebuffer during the install, you can
178 add <b><tt>-X -Y2</tt></b> to the command line, and choose <tt>rcons</tt>
179 instead of <tt>vt100</tt> when prompted with which terminal type to use.
180 (By just using <tt><b>-X</b></tt>, you will get a full-size framebuffer
181 window.)
182
183 <p>When the installation is finished, the following command should start
184 NetBSD from the harddisk image:<pre>
185 <b>gxemul -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
186 </pre>
187
188 <p><font color="#ff0000">NOTE:</font> For some reason, NetBSD 2.x and 3.x
189 do not work with X out-of-the-box on pmax. It seems that this has to do
190 with NetBSD switching console system to "WSCONS" somewhere between 1.6.2
191 and 2.0. For now, if you want X, then try NetBSD 1.6.2.
192
193 <p>With NetBSD/pmax 1.6.2, try the following to start with a framebuffer:<pre>
194 <b>gxemul -X -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
195 </pre>
196 and log in as <tt>root</tt> and type <tt>startx</tt> to start X windows.
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205 <p><br>
206 <a name="netbsdarcinstall"></a>
207 <h3>NetBSD/arc:</h3>
208
209 It is possible to install and run <a
210 href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/arc/">NetBSD/arc</a>
211 on an emulated Acer PICA-61 in the emulator.
212
213 <p>
214 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
215 <a href="20041024-netbsd-arc-installed.gif"><img src="20041024-netbsd-arc-installed_small.gif"></a>
216
217 <p>
218 To install NetBSD/arc from a CDROM image onto an emulated harddisk image,
219 follow these instructions:
220
221 <p>
222 <ol start="1">
223 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
224 that NetBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
225 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_arc.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=900000</b>
226
227 </pre>
228 <li>Download a NetBSD/arc 1.6.2 CDROM image, and a generic NetBSD/arc
229 kernel:<pre>
230 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/arccd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/arccd.iso</a>
231 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/arc/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/arc/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
232
233 </pre>
234 <li>Start the emulator using this command line:<pre>
235 <b>gxemul -e pica -x -d nbsd_arc.img -d bc:arccd.iso \
236 -j arc/binary/kernel/netbsd.RAMDISK.gz</b>
237
238 </pre>
239 (Try removing <tt>-x</tt> if you have problems with the xterm.)
240 <p>
241 <li>From now on, you have to use your imagination, as there is no
242 automatic installation program for NetBSD/arc. Here are some tips
243 and hints on how you can proceed with the install:
244 <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
245 <b>mount /dev/cd0a /mnt2
246 disklabel -i -I sd0</b> (for example 'a', '4.2BSD', '1c',
247 '700M', 'b', 'swap', '701M', '$', 'P', 'W', 'y', and 'Q')
248 <b>newfs /dev/sd0a
249 mount /dev/sd0a /mnt
250 cd /mnt
251 for a in /mnt2/arc/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar xzpf $a; done
252 cd dev; sh MAKEDEV all
253 cd ../etc; echo "rc_configured=YES" &gt;&gt; rc.conf
254 cat > /mnt/etc/fstab
255 /dev/sd0a / ffs rw 1 1
256 /dev/sd0b none swap sw 0 0
257 </b>(press ctrl-d)<b>
258 <b>cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2
259 halt</b>
260 </pre></td></tr></table>
261 </ol>
262
263 <p>You can now use the generic NetBSD/arc kernel to boot from the harddisk
264 image, using the following command:<pre>
265 <b>gxemul -e pica -x -d nbsd_arc.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
266
267 </pre>
268
269 <p>When asked for "<tt>root device: </tt>", enter <b><tt>sd0</tt></b>.
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277 <p><br>
278 <a name="netbsdhpcmipsinstall"></a>
279 <h3>NetBSD/hpcmips:</h3>
280
281 It is possible to install <a
282 href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/hpcmips/">NetBSD/hpcmips</a> onto a disk
283 image, on an an emulated MobilePro 770, 780, 800, or 880. The emulator
284 treats the different machine models as being almost identical; the most
285 important difference is regarding the framebuffer.
286
287 <p><table border="0">
288 <tr>
289 <td width="80">&nbsp;</td>
290 <td><u>Model:</u></td>
291 <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
292 <td><u>Framebuffer size/depth:</u></td>
293 <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
294 <td><u>Framebuffer address:</u></td>
295 </tr>
296 <tr>
297 <td></td>
298 <td>MobilePro 770 (<super>*2</super>)</td>
299 <td></td>
300 <td>640 x 240, 16 bits</td>
301 <td></td>
302 <td>0xa000000</td>
303 </tr>
304 <tr>
305 <td></td>
306 <td>MobilePro 780</td>
307 <td></td>
308 <td>640 x 240, 16 bits</td>
309 <td></td>
310 <td>0xa180100 (<super>*</super>)</td>
311 </tr>
312 <tr>
313 <td></td>
314 <td>MobilePro 800</td>
315 <td></td>
316 <td>800 x 600, 16 bits</td>
317 <td></td>
318 <td>0xa000000</td>
319 </tr>
320 <tr>
321 <td></td>
322 <td>MobilePro 880</td>
323 <td></td>
324 <td>800 x 600, 16 bits</td>
325 <td></td>
326 <td>0xa0ea600 (<super>*</super>)</td>
327 </tr>
328 </table>
329
330 <p>
331 (<super>*</super>) = not aligned at a 4 KB boundary, so it will not work
332 efficiently with the current bintrans system. Using this mode will still
333 work, but each load and store will be emulated much more slowly than is
334 possible with an aligned framebuffer.
335
336 <p>
337 (<super>*2</super>) = The MobilePro 770's cursor keys work differently
338 than the other models, for some reason. (This is a known bug.)
339
340 <p>
341 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
342 <a href="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-1.png"><img src="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-1_small.png"></a>
343 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
344 <a href="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-2.png"><img src="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-2_small.png"></a>
345
346 <p>
347 These instructions show an example of how to install
348 NetBSD/hpcmips on an emulated MobilePro 770:
349
350 <p>
351 <ol start="1">
352 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
353 that you will install NetBSD/hpcmips onto:<pre>
354 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_hpcmips.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1990000</b>
355
356 </pre>
357 <li>Download the NetBSD/hpcmips 3.0 ISO image, and a generic kernel:<pre>
358 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/3.0/">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/3.0</a>/<a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/3.0/hpcmipscd-3.0.iso">hpcmipscd-3.0.iso</a>
359
360 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0/hpcmips/binary/kernel/">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0/hpcmips/binary/kernel</a>/<a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0/hpcmips/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
361
362 </pre>
363 <p>
364 <li>Start the installation like this:<pre>
365 <b>gxemul -e mobilepro770 -X -A -d nbsd_hpcmips.img \
366 -d b:hpcmipscd-3.0.iso -j hpcmips/installation/netbsd.gz</b>
367
368 </pre>
369 and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real
370 MobilePro 770. (Install onto wd0, choose "Use entire disk" when
371 doing the MBR partitioning, and choose to install from CD-ROM.)
372 </ol>
373
374 <p>
375 If everything worked, NetBSD should now be installed on the disk image.
376 Use the following command line to boot the emulated hpcmips machine:<pre>
377 <b>gxemul -e mobilepro770 -X -d nbsd_hpcmips.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
378
379 </pre>
380
381 <p>If you change your mind at this point regarding which machine type to
382 emulate, you might for example prefer a MobilePro 800, then you can change
383 that at any time. NetBSD/hpcmips is designed to be able to boot on many
384 types, without any need to change the kernel.
385
386 <p>When you have logged in as <tt>root</tt>, you can use <tt>startx</tt> to
387 start X Windows, but there is no mouse support yet so only keyboard input
388 is available. This makes it a bit akward to use X.
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397 <p><br>
398 <a name="netbsdcobaltinstall"></a>
399 <h3>NetBSD/cobalt:</h3>
400
401 <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/cobalt/">NetBSD/cobalt</a> is tricky
402 to install, because the Cobalt machines were designed for Linux, and not
403 very flexible. There is no INSTALL kernel for NetBSD/cobalt. One way to
404 install the NetBSD/cobalt distribution onto a disk image is to do it from
405 another (emulated) machine.
406
407 <p>
408 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
409 <a href="20050413-netbsd-cobalt.png"><img src="20050413-netbsd-cobalt_small.png"></a>
410
411 <p>
412 The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/cobalt onto a disk
413 image, from an emulated DECstation 3MAX machine:
414
415 <p>
416 <ol>
417 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image
418 that you will install NetBSD/cobalt onto:<pre>
419 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_cobalt.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1999000</b>
420
421 </pre>
422 <li>Download the generic kernel for Cobalt and the 2.1 ISO image:<pre>
423 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/cobalt/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/cobalt/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
424 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/cobaltcd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/cobaltcd.iso</a>
425
426 </pre>
427 <p>
428 <li>Install NetBSD/pmax 3.0 according to instructions
429 <a href="#netbsdpmaxinstall">further up on this page</a>.
430 <p>
431 <li>Start NetBSD/pmax like this:<pre>
432 <b>gxemul -e3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img -d cobaltcd.iso -d nbsd_cobalt.img</b>
433
434 </pre>
435 <li>Log in as root (on the emulated 3MAX machine), and execute the
436 following commands: (adjust according to taste)
437 <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
438 <b>newfs /dev/sd1c
439 mount /dev/cd0c /mnt
440 mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/sd1c /mnt2
441 cd /mnt2; sh
442 for a in /mnt/cobalt/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
443 exit
444 cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
445 echo rc_configured=YES &gt;&gt; rc.conf
446 echo "/dev/wd0d / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab
447 cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt</b>
448 </pre></td></tr></table>
449 </ol>
450
451 <p>
452 You should now be able to boot NetBSD/cobalt like this:<pre>
453 <b>gxemul -M128 -E cobalt -d nbsd_cobalt.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
454 </pre>
455
456 Note that the installation instructions above create a filesystem
457 <i>without</i> a disklabel, so there is only one ffs partition and no
458 swap. You will need to enter the following things when booting with the
459 generic kernel:<pre>
460 root device (default wd0a): <b>wd0d</b>
461 dump device (default wd0b): <b>none</b>
462 file system (default generic): <b>ffs</b>
463 init path (default /sbin/init): <i>(just press enter here)</i>
464 </pre>
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472 <p><br>
473 <a name="netbsdevbmipsinstall"></a>
474 <h3>NetBSD/evbmips:</h3>
475
476 <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/evbmips/">NetBSD/evbmips</a> can run
477 in GXemul on an emulated Malta evaluation board (with a 5Kc or 4Kc CPU).
478
479 <p>
480 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
481 <a href="20050622-netbsd-evbmips-malta.png"><img src="20050622-netbsd-evbmips-malta_small.png"></a>
482
483 <p>It is tricky to install, because there is (as far as I know) no INSTALL
484 kernel. One way to install the NetBSD/evbmips distribution onto a disk
485 image is to install the files using another (emulated) machine.
486
487 <p>
488 The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/evbmips onto a disk
489 image, from an emulated DECstation 3MAX machine:
490
491 <p>
492 <ol>
493 <li>Install NetBSD/pmax 3.0 according to instructions
494 <a href="#netbsdpmaxinstall">further up on this page</a>.
495 <p>
496 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image
497 that you will install NetBSD onto:<pre>
498 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_malta.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=999000</b>
499
500 </pre>
501 <li>Download the generic kernel and the 2.1 ISO image:<pre>
502 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/evbmips-mipsel/binary/kernel/netbsd-MALTA.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/evbmips-mipsel/binary/kernel/netbsd-MALTA.gz</a>
503 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/evbmips-mipselcd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/evbmips-mipselcd.iso</a>
504
505 </pre>
506 <p>
507 <li>Start NetBSD/pmax like this:<pre>
508 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img -d nbsd_malta.img -d evbmips-mipselcd.iso</b>
509
510 </pre>and execute the following commands as <tt>root</tt>:
511 <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
512 <b>newfs /dev/sd1c
513 mount /dev/cd0c /mnt
514 mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/sd1c /mnt2
515 cd /mnt2; sh
516 for a in /mnt/evbmips-mipsel/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
517 exit
518 cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
519 echo rc_configured=YES >> rc.conf
520 echo "/dev/wd0c / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab
521 cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt</b>
522 </pre></td></tr></table>
523 </ol>
524
525 <p>You should now be able to boot NetBSD/evbmips using this command:<pre>
526 <b>gxemul -e malta -d nbsd_malta.img netbsd-MALTA.gz</b>
527 </pre>
528
529 <p>NOTE: To select a 4Kc (MIPS32) CPU instead of the default 5Kc
530 (MIPS64) CPU, add <tt><b>-C 4Kc</b></tt> to the command line. With NetBSD
531 2.1, however, there will be little or no difference in functionality, as
532 NetBSD still runs in 32-bit mode on 64-bit MIPS CPUs. There are two things
533 that differ:<ol>
534 <li>GXemul's binary translation subsystem might run a bit faster
535 in 32-bit mode (because there are some optimizations that don't
536 work with 64-bit emulation)
537 <li>4Kc only has 16 TLB entries, whereas 5Kc has 48. This makes 4Kc
538 slower.
539 </ol>
540
541 <p>The installation instructions above create a filesystem
542 <i>without</i> a disklabel, so there is only one ffs partition and no
543 swap. You will need to enter the following things when booting with the
544 generic kernel:<pre>
545 root device (default wd0a): <b>wd0c</b>
546 dump device (default wd0b): <b>none</b>
547 file system (default generic): <b>ffs</b>
548 init path (default /sbin/init): <i>(just press enter here)</i>
549 </pre>
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557 <p><br>
558 <a name="netbsdsgimips"></a>
559 <h3>NetBSD/sgimips:</h3>
560
561 <p>
562 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
563 <a href="20050626-netbsd-sgimips-netboot.png"><img src="20050626-netbsd-sgimips-netboot_small.png"></a>
564
565 <p><a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/sgimips/">NetBSD/sgimips</a> can run
566 in GXemul on an emulated O2 (SGI-IP32). However, GXemul does not yet
567 emulate the AHC PCI SCSI controller in the O2. (I have mailed Adaptec
568 several times, asking for documentation, but never received any reply.)
569 NetBSD can still run in the emulator, as long as it doesn't use SCSI.
570
571 <p>For a simple test with the 2.1 ramdisk (install) kernel, try
572 dowloading<pre>
573 <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</a>
574
575 </pre>and run&nbsp;&nbsp;<b><tt>gxemul -e o2 netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</tt></b>.
576
577 <p>It is possible to set up an environment for netbooting the emulated SGI
578 machine off of another emulated machine. Performing this setup is quite
579 time consuming, but necessary:
580
581 <p>
582 <ol>
583 <li>First of all, the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" machine must be set up.
584 This needs to have a 750 MB <tt>/tftpboot</tt> partition.
585 <a href="#netbsdpmaxinstall">Install NetBSD/pmax 3.0 from CDROM</a>.
586 (Don't forget to add the extra partition!)
587 <p>
588 <li>Configure the nfs server machine to act as an nfs server.
589 Start up the emulated DECstation:<pre>
590 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
591 </pre>and enter the following commands as <tt>root</tt>
592 inside the emulator:
593 <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
594 <b>echo hostname=server &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
595 echo ifconfig_le0=\"inet 10.0.0.2\" &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
596 echo nameserver 10.0.0.254 &gt;&gt; /etc/resolv.conf
597 echo 10.0.0.254 &gt; /etc/mygate
598 echo /tftpboot -maproot=root 10.0.0.1 &gt; /etc/exports
599 echo rpcbind=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
600 echo nfs_server=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
601 echo mountd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
602 echo bootparamd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
603 printf "client root=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot \\\n swap=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot/swap\n" &gt; /etc/bootparams
604 echo "bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/bootpd bootpd -d 4 -h 10.0.0.2" &gt;&gt; /etc/inetd.conf
605 cat &gt;&gt; /etc/bootptab
606 client:\
607 :ht=ether:\
608 :ha=102030000010:\
609 :sm=255.0.0.0:\
610 :lg=10.0.0.254:\
611 :ip=10.0.0.1:\
612 :rp=/tftpboot:
613 </b>(press CTRL-D)
614 <b>echo "10:20:30:00:00:10 client" &gt; /etc/ethers
615 echo 10.0.0.1 client &gt; /etc/hosts
616 reboot</b>
617 </pre></td></tr></table>
618 <li>Start the DECstation emulation again, and download the
619 NetBSD/sgimips distribution sets:<br>(NOTE: This
620 takes quite some time, even if you have a fast network connection.)
621 <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
622 <b>cd /tftpboot; ftp -i ftp.uk.netbsd.org</b>
623 (log in as anonymous...)
624 <b>cd /pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/sgimips/binary/sets
625 mget base.tgz comp.tgz etc.tgz games.tgz man.tgz misc.tgz text.tgz
626 quit
627 sh
628 for a in *.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; rm -f $a; done
629 echo 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot / nfs rw 0 0 &gt; /tftpboot/etc/fstab
630 echo rc_configured=YES &gt;&gt; /tftpboot/etc/rc.conf
631 dd if=/dev/zero of=swap bs=1024 count=32768
632 halt</b>
633 </pre></td></tr></table>
634 <li>Download the NetBSD/sgimips GENERIC and INSTALL kernels:<pre>
635 <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz</a>
636 <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</a>
637
638 </pre>
639 <li>Create a configuration file called <tt>config_client</tt>:
640 <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
641 <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul
642 !
643 ! Configuration file for running NetBSD/sgimips diskless with
644 ! a NetBSD/pmax machine as the nfs server.</font>
645
646 <b>emul(
647 net(
648 add_remote("localhost:12444") </b>! the server<b>
649 local_port(12445) </b>! the client<b>
650 )
651
652 machine(
653 name("client machine")
654 serial_nr(1)
655
656 type("sgi")
657 subtype("o2")
658
659 load("netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz")</b>
660 ! load("netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz")<b>
661 )
662 )</b>
663 </pre></td></tr></table>
664 ... and another configuration file for the server,
665 <tt>config_server</tt>:
666 <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
667 <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul</font>
668 <b>emul(
669 net(
670 local_port(12444) </b>! the server<b>
671 add_remote("localhost:12445") </b>! the client<b>
672 )
673
674 machine(
675 name("nfs server")
676 serial_nr(2)
677
678 type("dec")
679 subtype("5000/200")
680
681 disk("nbsd_pmax.img")
682 )
683 )</b>
684 </pre></td></tr></table>
685 <li>Boot the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" and the NetBSD/sgimips
686 "<tt>client machine</tt>" as two separate emulator instances:<pre>
687 in one xterm:
688 <b>gxemul @config_server</b>
689
690 and then, in another xterm:
691 <b>gxemul @config_client</b>
692
693 </pre>
694 <li>In the NetBSD/sgimips window, choose "<tt>x: Exit Install System</tt>"
695 in the installer's main menu, and then type:<pre>
696 <b>ifconfig mec0 10.0.0.1; route add default 10.0.0.254</b>
697 <b>mount -v 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot /mnt</b>
698 <b>cd /mnt/dev; ./MAKEDEV all; cd /; umount /mnt</b>
699 <b>halt</b>
700 </pre>Then, once the client machine has halted, log in as <tt>root</tt>
701 on the server machine and type <tt><b>reboot</b></tt>.
702 <p>
703 <li>Once everything has been set up correctly, change
704 <tt>netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</tt> in <tt>config_client</tt> to
705 <tt>netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz</tt> (the GENERIC kernel).
706 </ol>
707
708 <p>You might want to log in as <tt>root</tt> on the server machine, and
709 run <tt>tcpdump -lnvv</tt> or similar, to see that what the client machine
710 actually does on the network.
711
712 <p>It should now be possible to boot NetBSD/sgimips using the NetBSD/pmax
713 nfs server, using the following commands: (NOTE! Execute these two
714 commands in separate xterms!)<pre>
715 <b>gxemul @config_server</b>
716 <b>gxemul @config_client</b>
717 </pre>
718
719 <p>When asked for "<tt>root device:</tt>" etc. on the client machine, enter
720 the following values:<pre>
721 root device: <b>mec0</b>
722 dump device: <b>(leave blank)</b>
723 file system (default generic): <b>(leave blank)</b>
724 ..
725 init path (default /sbin/init): <b>(leave blank)</b>
726 Enter pathname of shell or RETURN for /bin/sh: <b>(leave blank)</b>
727 Terminal type? [unknown] <b>xterm</b>
728 ..
729 # <b>exit</b> (to leave the single-user shell)
730 </pre>
731
732 <p>Note: Netbooting like this is very slow, so you need a lot of patience.
733 For example, when NetBSD says "<tt>nfs_boot: trying DHCP/BOOTP</tt>",
734 there will be a long pause, even on a very fast host machine. The reason
735 for this is mostly because the emulator doesn't deal with timing issues
736 very well, but also because NetBSD tries IPv6 first, before falling back
737 to IPv4.
738
739
740
741
742
743
744 <p><br>
745 <a name="netbsdcatsinstall"></a>
746 <h3>NetBSD/cats:</h3>
747
748 It is possible to install and run
749 <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/cats/">NetBSD/cats</a> in GXemul.
750
751 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
752 <a href="20051007-netbsd-cats-installed.png"><img src="20051007-netbsd-cats-installed_small.png"></a>
753
754 <p>
755 To install NetBSD/cats onto a disk image, follow these instructions:
756
757 <p>
758 <ol start="1">
759 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
760 that you will install NetBSD/cats onto:<pre>
761 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_cats.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=2000000</b>
762
763 </pre>
764 <li>Download the NetBSD/cats 3.0 ISO image and the generic and install kernels:<pre>
765 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/3.0/catscd-3.0.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/3.0/catscd-3.0.iso</a>
766 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-GENERIC.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-GENERIC.gz</a>
767 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-3.0/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz</a>
768
769 </pre>
770 <p>
771 <li>Start the installation like this:<pre>
772 <b>gxemul -XEcats -d nbsd_cats.img -d catscd-3.0.iso netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz</b>
773
774 </pre>
775 and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real
776 CATS from CDROM.
777 </ol>
778
779 <p>Alternatively, to install from FTP, you can skip downloading the ISO,
780 and start the install without <tt>-d catscd-3.0.iso</tt>. Suitable network
781 settings are IP 10.0.0.1, gateway/default route 10.0.0.254, netmask
782 255.0.0.0, nameserver 10.0.0.254.
783
784 <p>If everything worked, NetBSD should now be installed on the disk image.
785 Use the following command line to boot the emulated CATS machine:<pre>
786 <b>gxemul -XEcats -d nbsd_cats.img netbsd.aout-GENERIC.gz</b>
787
788 </pre>
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796 <p><br>
797 <a name="netbsdevbarminstall"></a>
798 <h3>NetBSD/evbarm:</h3>
799
800 <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/evbarm/">NetBSD/evbarm</a> can
801 run in GXemul on an emulated IQ80321 evaluation board.
802
803 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
804 <a href="20060218-netbsd-evbarm.png"><img src="20060218-netbsd-evbarm_small.png"></a>
805
806 <p>It is tricky to install, because there is (as far as I know) no INSTALL
807 kernel. One way to install the NetBSD/evbarm distribution onto a disk
808 image is to install the files using another (emulated) machine.
809
810 <p>The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/evbarm onto a disk
811 image, from an emulated CATS machine:
812
813 <p>
814 <ol>
815 <li>Install NetBSD/cats 3.0 according to instructions
816 <a href="#netbsdcatsinstall">further up on this page</a>.
817 <p>
818 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image
819 that you will install NetBSD onto:<pre>
820 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_iq80321.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=999000</b>
821
822 </pre>
823 <li>Download an IQ80321 kernel with wdc support, and the 2.1 ISO image:<pre>
824 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/evbarm/binary/kernel/">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/evbarm/binary/kernel</a>/<a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/evbarm/binary/kernel/netbsd-wd0-IQ80321.gz">netbsd-wd0-IQ80321.gz</a>
825 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/evbarmcd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/evbarmcd.iso</a>
826
827 </pre>
828 <p>
829 <li>The first step is to copy the .tgz files we want onto the CATS
830 machine's harddisk. Start the CATS machine like this:<pre>
831 <b>gxemul -XEcats -d nbsd_cats.img -d evbarmcd.iso netbsd.aout-GENERIC.gz</b>
832
833 </pre>and execute the following commands as <tt>root</tt>:
834 <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
835 <b>mount /dev/cd0a /mnt; cd /root; cp /mnt/evbarm/binary/sets/[bcegmt]* .
836 sync; halt</b>
837 </pre></td></tr></table>
838 <p>
839 <li>Now let's extract the files onto the IQ80321's disk image. Start the
840 CATS machine again, with the following command line:<pre>
841 <b>gxemul -XEcats -d nbsd_cats.img -d nbsd_iq80321.img netbsd.aout-GENERIC.gz</b>
842
843 </pre>and execute the following commands as <tt>root</tt>:
844 <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
845 <b>disklabel -I -i wd1</b>
846 (enter suitable commands, e.g. <i>a, 4.2BSD, 1c, 750M, b,
847 swap, a, 200M, P, W, y, Q</i>)
848 <b>newfs /dev/wd1a; mount /dev/wd1a /mnt; cd /mnt; sh
849 for a in /root/[bcegmt]*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
850 exit
851 cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
852 echo rc_configured=YES &gt;&gt; rc.conf
853 echo "/dev/wd0a / ffs rw 1 1" &gt; fstab
854 echo "/dev/wd0b none swap sw 0 0" &gt;&gt; fstab
855 cd /; umount /mnt; sync; halt</b>
856 </pre></td></tr></table>
857 </ol>
858
859 <p>You should now be able to boot NetBSD/evbarm using this command:<pre>
860 <b>gxemul -xEiq80321 -d nbsd_iq80321.img netbsd-wd0-IQ80321.gz</b>
861 </pre>
862
863
864
865
866
867
868 <p><br>
869 <a name="netbsdprepinstall"></a>
870 <h3>NetBSD/prep:</h3>
871
872 It is possible to install and run
873 <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/prep/">NetBSD/prep</a> in GXemul
874 on an emulated IBM 6050 (PowerPC) machine.
875
876 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
877 <a href="20051123-netbsd-prep.png"><img src="20051123-netbsd-prep_small.png"></a>
878
879 <p>To install NetBSD/prep onto a disk image, follow these instructions:
880
881 <p>
882 <ol start="1">
883 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
884 that you will install NetBSD/prep onto:<pre>
885 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_prep.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1000000</b>
886
887 </pre>
888 <li>Download the NetBSD/prep 2.1 ISO image and the generic kernel:<pre>
889 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/prepcd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/prepcd.iso</a>
890 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/prep/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/prep/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
891
892 </pre>
893 <p>
894 <li>Start the installation like this:<pre>
895 <b>gxemul -x -e ibm6050 -d nbsd_prep.img -d rdb:prepcd.iso -j prep/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz</b>
896
897 </pre>
898 <p>
899 <li>Installation is a bit unsmooth, possibly due to bugs in GXemul,
900 possibly due to bugs in NetBSD itself; others have been having
901 problems on real hardware: <a href="http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-prep/2005/11/25/0004.html">http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-prep/2005/11/25/0004.html</a>.
902 Creating an MBR slice and a disklabel with sysinst bugs out, so
903 some things have to be done manually:<p>
904 At "<tt>(I)nstall, (S)hell, or (H)alt</tt>", choose
905 <tt><b><u>s</u></b></tt>.
906 <br><tt># <b><u>fdisk -u wd0</u></b></tt>
907 <br><tt>Do you want to change our idea of what BIOS thinks? [n]</tt>
908 (just press <b>ENTER</b>)
909 <br><tt>Which partition do you want to change?: [none] <b><u>0</u></b></tt>
910 <br><tt>sysid: ... </tt> (just press <B>ENTER</b>)
911 <br><tt>start: ... <b><u>1cyl</u></b></tt>
912 <br><tt>size: ... </tt> (just press <B>ENTER</b>)
913 <br><tt>Which partition do you want to change?: [none]</tt> (press <b>ENTER</b>)
914 <br><tt>Should we write new partition table? [n] <b><u>y</u></b></tt>
915 <br><tt># <b><u>disklabel -I -i wd0</u></b></tt>
916 <br><tt>partition&gt; <b><u>a</u></b></tt>
917 <br><tt>Filesystem type [?] [unused]: <b><u>4.2BSD</u></b></tt>
918 <br><tt>Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0c, 0s, 0M]: <b><u>1c</u></b></tt>
919 <br><tt>Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [0c, 0s, 0M]: <b><u>900M</u></b></tt>
920 <br><tt>partition&gt; <b><u>b</u></b></tt>
921 <br><tt>Filesystem type [?] [unused]: <b><u>swap</u></b></tt>
922 <br><tt>Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0c, 0s, 0M]: <b><u>a</u></b></tt>
923 <br><tt>Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [0c, 0s, 0M]: <b><u>$</u></b></tt>
924 <br><tt>partition&gt; <b><u>W</u></b></tt>
925 <br><tt>Label disk [n]? <b><u>y</u></b></tt>
926 <br><tt>partition&gt; <b><u>Q</u></b></tt>
927 <br><tt># <b><u>newfs wd0a</u></b></tt>
928 <br><tt># <b><u>sysinst</u></b></tt>
929 <br>Choose to install onto <b>wd0</b>. Choose
930 "<tt>a: Edit the MBR partition table</tt>"
931 when presented with that option.
932 <br>Choose the 'a' partition/slice,
933 set the 'e' ("active") and 'f' ("install") fields to <b>Yes</b>,
934 and then choose "<tt>x: Partition table OK</tt>".
935 <br>Choose "<tt>b: Use existing partition sizes</tt>" in the next
936 menu.
937 <br>Select partition 'a' and press ENTER. Set field 'k' (mount point)
938 to '<tt><b>/</b></tt>'.
939 <br>Get out of the partitioner by selecting
940 "<tt>x: Partition sizes ok</tt>" twice.
941 <br>At "<tt>Write outside MBR partition? [n]:</tt>", just press
942 <b>ENTER</b>.
943 <br>Install from CD-ROM, device <b>wd1c</b>.
944 </ol>
945
946 <p>If everything worked, NetBSD should now be installed on the disk image.
947 Use the following command line to boot the emulated machine:<pre>
948 <b>gxemul -x -e ibm6050 -d nbsd_prep.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
949
950 </pre>
951
952 <p>When asked which the root device is, type <tt><b>wd0</b></tt> and
953 just press ENTER to select the default values for dump device, file
954 system type, and init path.
955
956
957
958
959
960
961 <p><br>
962 <a name="openbsdpmaxinstall"></a>
963 <h3>OpenBSD/pmax:</h3>
964
965 Installing <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/pmax.html">OpenBSD/pmax</a> is
966 a bit harder than installing NetBSD/pmax. You should first read the <a
967 href="#netbsdpmaxinstall">section above</a> on how to install NetBSD/pmax,
968 before continuing here. If you have never installed OpenBSD on any
969 architecture, then you need a great deal of patience to do this. If, on
970 the other hand you are used to installing OpenBSD, then this should be no
971 problem for you.
972
973 <p>
974 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
975 <a href="20040710-openbsd-pmax.png"><img src="20040710-openbsd-pmax_small.png"></a>
976 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
977 <a href="openbsd-pmax-20040710.png"><img src="openbsd-pmax-20040710_small.png"></a>
978
979 <p>
980 OpenBSD/pmax died at release 2.8 of OpenBSD, so you should be
981 aware of the fact that this will not give you an up-to-date OpenBSD
982 system.
983
984 <p>
985 Following these instructions <i>might</i> work. If not, then use
986 common sense and imagination to modify them as you see fit.
987
988 <p>
989 <ol>
990 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
991 that OpenBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
992 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_pmax.img bs=1 count=512 seek=900000000</b>
993
994 </pre>
995 <li>Download the entire pmax directory from the ftp server: (approx. 99 MB)<pre>
996 <b>wget -r <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax/">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax/</a></b>
997
998 </pre>
999
1000 <li>Execute the following commands:
1001 <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1002 <b>mv ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax/simpleroot28.fs.gz .
1003 gunzip simpleroot28.fs.gz
1004 chmod +w simpleroot28.fs</b> &lt;--- make sure
1005 </pre></td></tr></table>
1006 <li>You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded.
1007 (I recommend using <tt>mkisofs</tt> for that purpose. If you don't
1008 already have <tt>mkisofs</tt> installed on your system, you need
1009 to install it in order to do this.)<pre>
1010 <b>mkisofs -o openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax</b>
1011
1012 </pre>
1013 <li>Start the emulator with all three (!) disk images:<pre>
1014 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d obsd_pmax.img -d b:simpleroot28.fs -j bsd -d c:openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso</b>
1015
1016 </pre>
1017 (If you add <tt>-X</tt>, you will run with the graphical
1018 framebuffer. This is <i>REALLY</i> slow because the console has to
1019 scroll a lot during the install. I don't recommend it.)
1020 <p>
1021 <li>Go on with the installation as you would do if you were installing on a real machine.
1022 If you are not used to the OpenBSD installer, then this will most likely
1023 be a very uncomfortable experience. Some important things to keep in mind are:
1024 <ul>
1025 <li>rz0 is the rootdisk you wish to install onto.
1026 <li>rz1 is the simpleroot image.
1027 <li>rz2 is the CDROM containing the "install sets".
1028 <li>When asked for the "<b>root device?</b>", enter <b>rz1</b>.
1029 <li>At "<b>Enter pathname of shell or RETURN for sh:</b>", press enter.
1030 <li>At the # prompt, do the following:<pre>
1031 <b>fsck /dev/rz1a</b> (and mark the filesystem as clean)
1032 <b>mount /dev/rz1a /</b>
1033 <b>mount -t kernfs kern kern</b>
1034 <b>./install</b>
1035
1036 </pre>
1037 and proceed with the install. Good luck. :-)
1038 <li>Answer "<b>y</b>" when asked if you wish to configure the network.
1039 (See the section about installing NetBSD/pmax for suitable
1040 network settings.)
1041 <li>Install from "<b>c</b>" (cdrom), choose "<b>rz2</b>" as the cdrom device, and "<b>/</b>" as
1042 the directory containing the install sets.
1043 </ul>
1044 <p>
1045 <li>For some unknown reason, the install script does not set the root
1046 password! The first time you boot up OpenBSD after the install, you
1047 need to go into single user mode and run <b>passwd root</b> to set
1048 the root password, or you will not be able to log in at all!<pre>
1049 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d obsd_pmax.img -d 2c:openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso -j bsd -o '-s'</b>
1050 </pre>
1051 While you are at it, you might want to extract the X11 install sets
1052 as well, as the installer seems to ignore them too. (Perhaps due to a bug
1053 in the installer, perhaps because of the way I used mkisofs.)
1054 <p>
1055 Execute the following commands in the emulator:
1056 <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1057 <b>fsck /dev/rz0a
1058 mount /
1059 passwd root
1060
1061 cd /; mount -t cd9660 /dev/rz2c /mnt; sh
1062 for a in /mnt/[xX]*; do tar zxvf $a; done
1063 ln -s /usr/X11R6/bin/Xcfbpmax /usr/X11R6/bin/X
1064 ln -s /dev/fb0 /dev/mouse
1065 echo /usr/X11R6/lib &gt;&gt; /etc/ld.so.conf
1066 ldconfig
1067
1068 sync
1069 halt</b>
1070 </pre></td></tr></table>
1071 </ol>
1072
1073 <p>
1074 NOTE: It is also possible to install via ftp instead of using a CDROM image.
1075 This is not much less awkward, you still need the simpleroot filesystem
1076 image, and you still have to manually add the X11 install sets and set the
1077 root password, and so on.
1078
1079 <p>
1080 Once you have completed the installation procedure, the following command
1081 will let you boot from the new rootdisk image:
1082 <pre>
1083 <b>gxemul -e 3max -X -o '-aN' -d obsd_pmax.img -j bsd</b>
1084 </pre>
1085
1086 <p>
1087 (Normally, you would be asked about which root device to use (<tt>rz0</tt>),
1088 but using <b><tt>-o '-aN'</tt></b> supresses that.)
1089
1090 <p>
1091 When asked for which terminal type to use, when logging in as root,
1092 enter <b><tt>rcons</tt></b> if you are using the graphical framebuffer,
1093 <b><tt>vt100</tt></b> for text-mode.
1094 <br>Use <b><tt>startx</tt></b> to start X windows.
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104 <p><br>
1105 <a name="openbsdcatsinstall"></a>
1106 <h3>OpenBSD/cats:</h3>
1107
1108 It is possible to install and run
1109 <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/cats.html">OpenBSD/cats</a>
1110 in GXemul.
1111
1112 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1113 <a href="20051007-openbsd-cats-installed.png"><img src="20051007-openbsd-cats-installed_small.png"></a>
1114
1115 <p>To install OpenBSD/cats onto an emulated harddisk image,
1116 follow these instructions:
1117
1118 <p>
1119 <ol>
1120 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
1121 that OpenBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
1122 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_cats.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1900000</b>
1123
1124 </pre>
1125 <li>Download the entire cats directory from the ftp server:<pre>
1126 <b>wget -np -l 0 -r <a href="ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.8/cats/">ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.8/cats/</a></b>
1127 <b>cp ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.8/cats/bsd .</b>
1128 <b>cp ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.8/cats/bsd.rd .</b>
1129
1130 </pre>
1131
1132 <li>You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded.
1133 (I recommend using <tt>mkisofs</tt> for that purpose. If you don't
1134 already have <tt>mkisofs</tt> installed on your system, you need
1135 to install it in order to do this.)<pre>
1136 <b>mkisofs -allow-lowercase -o openbsd_cats_3.8.iso ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/</b>
1137
1138 </pre>
1139 <li>Start the emulator using this command line:<pre>
1140 <b>gxemul -XEcats -d obsd_cats.img -d openbsd_cats_3.8.iso bsd.rd</b>
1141
1142 </pre>
1143 and proceed like you would do if you were installing OpenBSD
1144 on a real CATS. (Install onto <tt>wd0</tt>, don't configure the
1145 network, install from CD.)
1146 </ol>
1147
1148 <p>(Although it <i>is</i> possible to configure the network, IPv4 address
1149 10.0.0.1, netmask 255.0.0.0, gateway/default route 10.0.0.254, and
1150 nameserver 10.0.0.254, the userland NAT-like networking layer is not
1151 stable enough yet to support a full install via ftp.)
1152
1153 <p><b>NOTE:</b> Make sure that you <tt>sync</tt> and <tt>reboot</tt>
1154 correctly once the installation is finished, or the <tt>/dev</tt> nodes
1155 may not have been written correctly to disk.
1156
1157 <p>Once the install has finished, the following command should let you
1158 boot from the harddisk image:
1159
1160 <p><pre>
1161 <b>gxemul -XEcats -d obsd_cats.img bsd</b>
1162
1163 </pre>
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171 <p><br>
1172 <a name="ultrixinstall"></a>
1173 <h3>Ultrix/RISC:</h3>
1174
1175 Ultrix 4.x can run in GXemul on an emulated DECstation 5000/200.
1176 (Ultrix was the native OS for these machines, but NetBSD/pmax is
1177 also usable.)
1178
1179 <p>
1180 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1181 <a href="20040504-ultrix45-boot1.png"><img src="20040504-ultrix45-boot1_small.gif"></a>
1182 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1183 <a href="ultrix4.5-20040706.png"><img src="ultrix4.5-20040706_small.gif"></a>
1184
1185 <p>
1186 The following instructions should let you install Ultrix onto a disk image:
1187
1188 <ol>
1189 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
1190 that Ultrix installs itself onto:<pre>
1191 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=rootdisk.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=800000</b>
1192
1193 </pre>
1194 <li>Place your Ultrix installation media in your CDROM drive.
1195 (On FreeBSD and similar systems, it is called <tt>/dev/cd0c</tt>.
1196 Replace that with the name of your CDROM drive, or the name of a
1197 .iso image file.) Then, start the emulator like this:<pre>
1198 <b>gxemul -X -A -e 3max -d rootdisk.img -d bc:/dev/cd0c -j vmunix</b>
1199
1200 </pre>
1201 <li>Once the first stage of the installation is done (restoring the root
1202 filesystem), you need to restart the emulator, booting from the
1203 new rootdisk, to continue the installation process.
1204 This is done by removing the bootflag ('<tt>b</tt>') from the second
1205 diskimage argument:<pre>
1206 <b>gxemul -X -A -e 3max -d rootdisk.img -d c:/dev/cd0c -j vmunix</b>
1207
1208 </pre>
1209 </ol>
1210
1211 <p>
1212 When the installation is completed, the following command should start
1213 Ultrix from the harddisk image:<pre>
1214 <b>gxemul -X -A -e 3max -j vmunix -d rootdisk.img</b>
1215 </pre>
1216
1217 <p>Ultrix mostly seems to work with dynamic binary translation (which can
1218 be disabled by the <b><tt>-B</tt></b> command line option). If you have a
1219 very fast host machine, and use bintrans, you might experience a weird
1220 timer related bug, which makes it impossible to logon to the system. It is
1221 triggered when the emulation goes faster than any real DECstation machine
1222 was capable of running. A temporary workaround is to add
1223 <b><tt>-I33000000</tt></b> to fix the emulated clock speed to 33 million
1224 instructions per emulated second. (When using <tt><b>-CR4400</b></tt>,
1225 <b><tt>-I16000000</tt></b> should be used instead.)
1226
1227 <p>
1228 You can experiment with adding <b><tt>-Z2</tt></b> (for emulating a
1229 dual-headed workstation) or even <b><tt>-Z3</tt></b> (tripple-headed), and
1230 also the <b><tt>-Y2</tt></b> option for scaling down the framebuffer
1231 windows by a factor 2x2.
1232 There is also a <b><tt>-z</tt></b> option for supplying names of X11
1233 displays to use. The following example starts Ultrix on an emulated
1234 tripple-headed workstation, on three different displays (<tt>remote1:0.0</tt>,
1235 <tt>localhost:0.0</tt>, and <tt>remote2:0.0</tt>), using no scaledown:<pre>
1236 <b>gxemul -A -N -e 3max -jgenvmunix -d rootdisk.img \
1237 -XZ3 -z remote1:0.0 -z localhost:0.0 -z remote2:0.0</b>
1238 </pre>
1239
1240 <p>
1241 The photo below shows a single Ultrix session running tripple-headed in
1242 GXemul on an Alpha 21164PC, with displays on a Sun Ultra1 (to the left),
1243 on the Alpha itself (in the middle), and on an HP700/RX X-terminal (8-bit
1244 color depth, running off the Alpha) to the right.
1245
1246 <p>
1247 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1248 <a href="20041209-ultrix-tripplehead.jpg"><img src="20041209-ultrix-tripplehead_small.jpg"></a>
1249
1250 <p>
1251 The X11 displays may differ in bit depth and endianness. Unfortunately,
1252 there is no way yet to set the scaledown factor on a per-window basis, so
1253 the scaledown factor affects all windows.
1254
1255 <p>
1256 (If you didn't use <tt><b>-Z<i>n</i></b></tt> during the installation, and
1257 compiled your own <tt>/vmunix</tt>, then it will not contain support for
1258 multiple graphics cards. To overcome this problem, use the generic kernel,
1259 <tt><b>-j genvmunix</b></tt>, whenever you are running the emulator with a
1260 different setup than the one you used when Ultrix was installed.)
1261
1262 <p>
1263 A note for the historically interested: OSF/1 for MIPS was quite similar
1264 to Ultrix, so that is possible to run as well. If you are unsuccessful
1265 in installing Ultrix or OSF/1 directly in the emulator, you can always
1266 install it on your real machine onto a real SCSI disk, and then copy the
1267 contents of that SCSI disk into a file (using <b><tt>dd(1)</tt></b>), and use
1268 that file as a disk image file in the emulator.
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275 <p><br>
1276 <a name="sprite"></a>
1277 <h3>Sprite for DECstation:</h3>
1278
1279 Sprite was a research operating system at the University of Berkeley.
1280 The Unix Heritage Society (TUHS, <a href="http://www.tuhs.org">www.tuhs.org</a>)
1281 has made available a copy of a Sprite harddisk image for a DECstation 5000/200.
1282 If you want to find out more about Sprite in general, read
1283 <a href="http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/projects/sprite/retrospective.html">
1284 http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/projects/sprite/retrospective.html</a>.
1285
1286 <p>
1287 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1288 <a href="20040711-sprite-1.png"><img src="20040711-sprite-1_small.png"></a>
1289 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1290 <a href="sprite-20040711.png"><img src="sprite-20040711_small.png"></a>
1291
1292 <p>
1293 The following instructions should let you run Sprite in the emulator:
1294
1295 <p>
1296 <ol>
1297 <li>Download the Sprite harddisk image:<pre>
1298 <a href="ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/ds5000.bt">ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/ds5000.bt</a>
1299 83973120 bytes, MD5 = ec84eeeb20fe77b758370d5e312e4a5e
1300
1301 </pre>
1302 <li>Start the emulator with the following command line:<pre>
1303 <b>gxemul -X -e 3max -M128 -d ds5000.bt -j vmsprite -o ''</b>
1304
1305 </pre>
1306 </ol>
1307
1308 <p>
1309 The first time you boot up with the disk image, you will be asked a number
1310 of questions regarding network settings. If you feel like entering correct
1311 values, then you should use the following:
1312 <p>
1313
1314 <pre>
1315 Your machine's Ethernet address: 10:20:30:00:00:10
1316 Your machine's IP: 10.0.0.1
1317 Subnet mask: 0xff000000
1318 Gateway's Ethernet address: 60:50:40:30:20:10
1319 Gateway's IP: 10.0.0.254
1320 </pre>
1321
1322 <p>
1323 Unfortunately, at the end of <a href="ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/boot.txt">ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/boot.txt</a>,
1324 the following sad statement can be found:
1325 <pre>
1326 The bootable Sprite image is meant to be a demonstration of Sprite, not
1327 a robust Sprite system. There are several missing things, such as
1328 floating point and network support.
1329 </pre>
1330
1331 <p>Once you are logged in as root, running <b><tt>xinit</tt></b> will
1332 start the X11 environment.
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339 <p><br>
1340 <a name="declinux"></a>
1341 <h3>Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation:</h3>
1342
1343 It is possible to run Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation in the emulator,
1344 on an emulated 5000/200 ("3max"). Although the Debian project has released
1345 install ramdisk kernels for this purpose, these do not always work:
1346 <ul>
1347 <li>Serial console output doesn't work too well in GXemul. There are
1348 random oopses, which may be due to bugs in GXemul, but may
1349 also be due to bugs in the serial controller code in Linux.
1350 (The speed at which serial interrupts are generated can be
1351 lowered with the <tt>-U</tt> command line option, but it only
1352 reduces the risk, it doesn't take away the oopses completely.)
1353 <li>Old install kernels supported the graphical framebuffer on the
1354 3max, but not the keyboard.
1355 <li>For quite some time, the MIPS linux cvs tree had support for the
1356 keyboard, but it did <i>not</i> include Debian's patches for
1357 networking. (Perhaps this has been fixed now, I don't know.)
1358 </ul>
1359
1360 <p>David Muse has made available a precompiled install kernel which
1361 has support for framebuffer, keyboard, and networking, which works
1362 pretty well. Thanks David. :-)
1363
1364 <p>
1365 The following steps should let you install Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation
1366 onto a harddisk image:
1367
1368 <p>
1369 <ol>
1370 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
1371 that Debian installs itself onto:<pre>
1372 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=debian_pmax.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=3300000</b>
1373
1374 </pre>
1375 <li>Download David Muse' install kernel, and a Debian Netinstall CD-ROM:<pre>
1376 <a href="http://www.firstworks.com/mips-linux-2.4.31/vmlinux-2.4.31">http://www.firstworks.com/mips-linux-2.4.31/vmlinux-2.4.31</a>
1377 <a href="http://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/3.1_r0a/mipsel/iso-cd/debian-31r0a-mipsel-netinst.iso">http://cdimage.debian.org/debian-cd/3.1_r0a/mipsel/iso-cd/debian-31r0a-mipsel-netinst.iso</a>
1378
1379 </pre>
1380 <p>
1381 <li>Start the installation like this:<pre>
1382 <b>gxemul -XAe3max -d debian_pmax.img -d debian-31r0a-mipsel-netinst.iso vmlinux-2.4.31</b>
1383
1384 </pre>
1385 Everything is <i>really</i> slow, for several reasons (framebuffer is
1386 always slower than serial console, and Debian's install seems to be
1387 made up of scripts that run a lot slower in the emulator than pure
1388 C code would).
1389 <p>
1390 There will be a <font color="#d00000">warning</font> about "Select
1391 keyboard layout". Don't mind this. Continue by selecting "Detect and
1392 mount CD-ROM".
1393 <p>
1394 There will also be a <font color="#d00000">warning</font> about lack
1395 of loadable modules. Don't mind this, continue anyway.
1396 <p>
1397 You need to enter some values during the installation procedure, for
1398 example network settings. The following should work:<pre>
1399 DHCP: No, choose "<b>Configure network manually</b>"
1400 IP address: <b>10.0.0.1</b>
1401 Netmask: <b>255.0.0.0</b>
1402 Gateway: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
1403 Name server addresses: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
1404 </pre>
1405 <li>Once the first phase of the install has finished, the following command
1406 should let you boot into Debian, and perform post-install
1407 configuration:<pre>
1408 <b>gxemul -XAe3max -o 'root=/dev/sda1' -d debian_pmax.img vmlinux-2.4.31</b>
1409
1410 </pre>The post-install step takes quite some time.
1411 </ol>
1412
1413 <p>Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation should now be installed. Use this command
1414 to boot from the installed disk image:<pre>
1415 <b>gxemul -XAe3max -o 'root=/dev/sda1' -d debian_pmax.img vmlinux-2.4.31</b>
1416
1417 </pre>
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425 <p><br>
1426 <a name="declinuxredhat"></a>
1427 <h3>Redhat Linux for DECstation:</h3>
1428
1429
1430 <p>
1431 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1432 <a href="20041129-redhat_mips.png"><img src="20041129-redhat_mips_small.png"></a>
1433
1434 <p>
1435 The following steps should let you run Redhat Linux for DECstation in GXemul:
1436
1437 <p>
1438 <ol>
1439 <li>Download a kernel. David Muse' Debian-install kernel works fine, also with Redhat:<pre>
1440 <a href="http://www.firstworks.com/mips-linux-2.4.31/vmlinux-2.4.31">http://www.firstworks.com/mips-linux-2.4.31/vmlinux-2.4.31</a>
1441
1442 </pre>
1443 <li>Download a root filesystem tree:<pre>
1444 <a href="ftp://ftp.uni-wuppertal.de/pub/linux/mips/mipsel-linux/root/mipsel-root-20011216.tgz">ftp://ftp.uni-wuppertal.de/pub/linux/mips/</a>
1445 <a href="ftp://ftp.uni-wuppertal.de/pub/linux/mips/mipsel-linux/root/mipsel-root-20011216.tgz">mipsel-linux/root/mipsel-root-20011216.tgz</a>
1446 19486676 bytes, md5 = 5bcb725c90209479cd7ead8ad0c4a414
1447
1448 </pre>
1449 <li>Create a disk image which will contain the Redhat filesystem:<pre>
1450 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=redhat_mips.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=2000000</b>
1451
1452 </pre>
1453 <li>This is the tricky part: on redhat_mips.img, you need to create an MS-DOS
1454 (!) partition table, and then an ext2 partition. This is what Linux
1455 will then see as /dev/sda1.
1456 <p>On a Linux host, you could use a loopback mount, or similar. Otherwise,
1457 I recommend you run fdisk and mke2fs and untar the archive from within
1458 Debian/DECstation or <a href="#debiancats">Debian/CATS</a> running
1459 inside the emulator. Use your imagination.
1460 <p>
1461 In order to actually boot the system you need to modify /etc/fstab.
1462 Change<pre>
1463 /dev/root / nfs defaults 1 1
1464 #/dev/sdc1 / ext2 defaults 1 1
1465 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
1466 none /dev/pts devpts mode=0622 0 0
1467
1468 </pre>to<pre>
1469 #/dev/root / nfs defaults 1 1
1470 /dev/sda1 / ext2 defaults 1 1
1471 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
1472 none /dev/pts devpts mode=0622 0 0
1473
1474 </pre>(Note sda1 instead of sdc1.)
1475 </ol>
1476
1477 <p>To boot Redhat linux from the disk image, use the following command line:<pre>
1478 <b>gxemul -XAe3max -o "root=/dev/sda1 ro" -d redhat_mips.img vmlinux-2.4.31</b>
1479
1480 </pre>
1481 If you need to boot into single user mode, change options to
1482 <tt><b>-o "root=/dev/sda1 rw init=/bin/sh"</b></tt>.
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490 <p><br>
1491 <hr>
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499 <p><br>
1500 <a name="mach"></a>
1501 <h3>Mach/PMAX:</h3>
1502
1503 Read the following link if you want to know more about Mach in general:
1504 <a href="http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/mach/public/www/mach.html">
1505 http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/mach/public/www/mach.html</a>
1506
1507 <p>
1508 <font color="#ff0000">NOTE: Mach for DECstation requires some files
1509 (called 'startup' and 'emulator') which I haven't been able to find
1510 on the web. Without these, Mach will not get very far. These
1511 installation instructions are preliminary.
1512 </font>
1513
1514 <p>
1515 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1516 <a href="20041018-mach_pmax.png"><img src="20041018-mach_pmax_small.png"></a>
1517
1518 <p>
1519 The following steps should let you experiment with running Mach
1520 for DECstation in the emulator:
1521
1522 <p>
1523 <ol>
1524 <li>Compile gxemul with cache emulation: (<b>NOTE: --enable-caches</b>)<pre>
1525 <b>./configure --enable-caches; make</b>
1526
1527 </pre>
1528 <li>Download the pmax binary distribution for Mach 3.0:<pre>
1529 <a href="http://lost-contact.mit.edu/afs/athena/user/d/a/daveg/Info/Links/Mach/src/release/pmax.tar.Z">http://lost-contact.mit.edu/afs/athena/user/d/a/</a>
1530 <a href="http://lost-contact.mit.edu/afs/athena/user/d/a/daveg/Info/Links/Mach/src/release/pmax.tar.Z">daveg/Info/Links/Mach/src/release/pmax.tar.Z</a>
1531 7263343 bytes, md5 = f9d76c240a6e169921a1df99ad560cc0
1532
1533 </pre>
1534 <li>Extract the Mach kernel:<pre>
1535 <b>tar xfvz pmax.tar.Z pmax_mach/special/mach.boot.MK83.STD+ANY</b>
1536
1537 </pre>
1538 <li>Create an empty disk image:<pre>
1539 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=disk.img bs=1 count=512 seek=400000000</b>
1540
1541 </pre>
1542 <li>Load the contents of pmax.tar.Z onto the disk image. This is
1543 complicated, and should be described in more detail some time.
1544 For now, use your imagination. (For example using OpenBSD/pmax:
1545 <i>disklabel -E rz1; newfs -O /dev/rz1a;
1546 mount /dev/rz1a /mnt; cd /mnt; download pmax.tar.Z using ftp;
1547 tar xzvf pmax.tar.Z; mv pmax_mach/* .; rmdir pmax_mach;
1548 mkdir mach_servers;
1549 cd mach_servers;
1550 cp ../etc/mach_init .;
1551 cp ../tests/test_service startup;
1552 dd if=/dev/zero of=paging_file bs=65536 count=400;
1553 cd /; sync; umount /mnt</i>)
1554 <p>
1555 <li>Start the emulator with the following command:<pre>
1556 <b>gxemul -e 3max -X -d disk.img \
1557 pmax_mach/special/mach.boot.MK83.STD+ANY</b>
1558
1559 </pre>
1560 </ol>
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568 <p><br>
1569 <a name="openbsdsgiinstall"></a>
1570 <h3>OpenBSD/sgi:</h3>
1571
1572 <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/sgi.html">OpenBSD/sgi</a>
1573 can (almost) run in GXemul on an emulated O2 (SGI-IP32) with root on nfs.
1574
1575 <p>
1576 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1577 <a href="20050617-openbsd-sgi.png"><img src="20050617-openbsd-sgi_small.png"></a>
1578
1579 <p><font color="#ff0000">NOTE: I haven't succeeded all the way with
1580 this yet, and this shows/triggers many bugs in the emulator, but some of
1581 it works.</font>
1582
1583 <p>GXemul does not yet emulate the AHC PCI SCSI controller in the O2. (I have
1584 mailed Adaptec several times, asking for documentation, but never received
1585 any reply.) OpenBSD/sgi can still run in the emulator, as long as it doesn't
1586 use SCSI. For a simple test with the ramdisk (install) kernel, try dowloading<pre>
1587 <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd</a>
1588
1589 </pre>and run <b><tt>gxemul -e o2 bsd.rd</tt></b>.
1590
1591 <p>It might also be possible to netboot. Another emulated machine must
1592 then be used as the nfs root server, and the emulated O2 machine must boot
1593 as a <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=diskless&amp;manpath=OpenBSD+Current&amp;format=html">diskless</a>
1594 client. Performing this setup is quite time consuming, but necessary:
1595
1596 <p>
1597 <ol>
1598 <li>First of all, the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" machine must be set up.
1599 This needs to have a 800 MB <tt>/tftpboot</tt> partition.
1600 <a href="#netbsdpmaxinstall">Install NetBSD/pmax 3.0 from CDROM</a>.
1601 (Don't forget to add the extra partition!)
1602 <p>
1603 <li>Configure the nfs server machine to act as an nfs server.
1604 Start up the emulated DECstation:<pre>
1605 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
1606 </pre>and enter the following commands as <tt>root</tt>
1607 inside the emulator:
1608 <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1609 <b>echo hostname=server &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1610 echo ifconfig_le0=\"inet 10.0.0.2\" &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1611 echo nameserver 10.0.0.254 &gt;&gt; /etc/resolv.conf
1612 echo 10.0.0.254 &gt; /etc/mygate
1613 echo /tftpboot -maproot=root 10.0.0.1 &gt; /etc/exports
1614 echo rpcbind=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1615 echo nfs_server=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1616 echo mountd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1617 echo bootparamd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1618 printf "client root=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot \\\n swap=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot/swap\n" &gt; /etc/bootparams
1619 echo "10:20:30:00:00:10 client" &gt; /etc/ethers
1620 echo 10.0.0.1 client &gt; /etc/hosts
1621 reboot</b>
1622 </pre></td></tr></table>
1623 <li>Start the DECstation emulation again, and enter the following
1624 commands to download the OpenBSD/sgi distribution:<br>(NOTE: This
1625 takes quite some time, even if you have a fast network connection.)
1626 <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1627 <b>cd /tftpboot; ftp -i ftp.se.openbsd.org</b>
1628 (log in as anonymous...)
1629 <b>cd pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi
1630 mget b*tgz c* e* g* m*
1631 quit
1632 sh
1633 for a in *.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
1634 echo 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot / nfs rw 0 0 &gt; /tftpboot/etc/fstab
1635 rm *.tgz
1636 dd if=/dev/zero of=swap bs=1024 count=32768
1637 halt</b>
1638 </pre></td></tr></table>
1639 <li>Download the OpenBSD/sgi GENERIC and RAMDISK kernels:<pre>
1640 <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd</a>
1641 MD5 (bsd) = f16eaf3dcbd51876db7c25f70e6d8a08
1642 <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd</a>
1643 MD5 (bsd.rd) = 4843e6139d8dd04b03d5f0e33e9a4f7b
1644
1645 </pre>
1646 <li>Create a configuration file called <tt>config_client</tt>:
1647 <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1648 <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul
1649 !
1650 ! Configuration file for running OpenBSD/sgi diskless with
1651 ! a NetBSD/pmax machine as the nfs server.
1652 !
1653 ! This config file is for the client.</font>
1654
1655 <b>emul(
1656 net(
1657 add_remote("localhost:12444") </b>! the server<b>
1658 local_port(12445) </b>! the client<b>
1659 )
1660
1661 machine(
1662 name("client machine")
1663 serial_nr(1)
1664
1665 type("sgi")
1666 subtype("o2")
1667
1668 </b>! load("bsd")<b>
1669 load("bsd.rd")
1670 )
1671 )</b>
1672 </pre></td></tr></table>
1673 ... and another configuration file for the server,
1674 <tt>config_server</tt>:
1675 <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1676 <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul</font>
1677 <b>emul(
1678 net(
1679 local_port(12444) </b>! the server<b>
1680 add_remote("localhost:12445") </b>! the client<b>
1681 )
1682
1683 machine(
1684 name("nfs server")
1685 serial_nr(2)
1686
1687 type("dec")
1688 subtype("5000/200")
1689
1690 disk("nbsd_pmax.img")
1691 )
1692 )</b>
1693 </pre></td></tr></table>
1694 <li>Boot the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" and the OpenBSD/sgi
1695 "<tt>client machine</tt>" as two separate emulator instances:<pre>
1696 in one xterm:
1697 <b>gxemul @config_server</b>
1698
1699 and then, in another xterm:
1700 <b>gxemul @config_client</b>
1701
1702 </pre>
1703 <li>In the OpenBSD/sgi window, choose "<tt>s</tt>" (for Shell), and type:
1704 <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1705 <b>ifconfig mec0 10.0.0.1; route add default 10.0.0.254
1706 mount -v 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot /mnt
1707 cd /mnt/dev; ./MAKEDEV all; cd /; umount /mnt
1708 halt</b>
1709 </pre></td></tr></table>
1710 You might want to log in as <tt>root</tt> on the server machine, and
1711 run <tt>tcpdump -lnvv</tt> or similar, to see that what the client
1712 machine actually does on the network. The <tt>MAKEDEV</tt> script
1713 takes almost forever, so be patient.
1714 </ol>
1715
1716
1717 <p><font color="#ff0000">NOTE: Everything up to this point should work.
1718 However, the next step (in gray) doesn't actually work:</font>
1719
1720 <p><font color="#888888">Once everything has been set up correctly, change
1721 <tt>bsd.rd</tt> in <tt>config_client</tt> to just <tt>bsd</tt> (the GENERIC
1722 kernel). It should now be possible to boot OpenBSD/sgi using the NetBSD/pmax
1723 nfs server. (When asked for "<tt>root device :</tt>" on the OpenBSD machine,
1724 enter <tt><b>mec0</b></tt>.)</font>
1725
1726 <p><font color="#ff0000">But it doesn't work. Probably because GXemul's
1727 implementation of the mec (ethernet card used in the O2) is too much of
1728 a quick hack. For now, use the <tt>bsd.rd</tt> kernel, and (at every
1729 boot) type:</font><pre>
1730 <b>s</b> (for Shell)
1731 <b>ifconfig mec0 10.0.0.1; route add default 10.0.0.254</b>
1732 <b>mount -v 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot /mnt</b>
1733 <b>cd /mnt; usr/sbin/chroot .</b>
1734 <b>sh etc/rc</b>
1735 </pre>
1736
1737 <p><font color="#ff0000">This will not cause OpenBSD to be booted
1738 normally, but at least a few basic things will work.
1739 By the way, the emulator performs so poorly, that you will have time to
1740 fetch several cups of coffee for each of the steps above.</font>
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750 <p><br>
1751 <a name="openbsdarcinstall"></a>
1752 <h3>OpenBSD/arc:</h3>
1753
1754 It is (almost) possible to install and run OpenBSD/arc on an emulated Acer
1755 PICA-61 in the emulator.
1756
1757 <p><font color="#e00000">Earlier, I had this guest OS listed as
1758 officially working in the emulator, but for several reasons, it has
1759 been moved down here to the "informative-but-not-really-working"
1760 section.</font>
1761
1762 <p>
1763 <ul>
1764 <li>The last OpenBSD/arc release was 2.3. This means that it is very
1765 old, it would not give a fair picture of what OpenBSD is (if you
1766 are just looking to find out what it is like), and it is not
1767 worth experimenting with it. See
1768 <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/arc.html">http://www.openbsd.org/arc.html</a>
1769 for more information.
1770 <li>OpenBSD/arc was (if I understood things correctly) never really
1771 stable, even on real hardare. Problems with too small an interrupt
1772 stack. Bugs are triggered in the emulator that have to do with
1773 issues such as this.
1774 </ul>
1775
1776 <p>
1777 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1778 <a href="20041024-openbsd-arc-installed.gif"><img src="20041024-openbsd-arc-installed_small.gif"></a>
1779
1780 <p>
1781 <font color="#e00000">Currently, I don't test for every release whether
1782 or not OpenBSD/arc can be installed. Releases prior to 0.3.7
1783 (but probably <i>not</i> 0.3.7) should work. Anyway, here are the
1784 old installation instructions:</font>
1785
1786 <p>To install OpenBSD/arc onto an emulated harddisk image, follow these
1787 instructions:
1788
1789 <p>
1790 <ol>
1791 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
1792 that OpenBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
1793 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_arc.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=700000</b>
1794
1795 </pre>
1796 <li>Download the entire arc directory from the ftp server: (approx. 75 MB)<pre>
1797 <b>wget -np -l 0 -r <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.3/arc/">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.3/arc/</a></b>
1798
1799 </pre>
1800
1801 <li>You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded.
1802 (I recommend using <tt>mkisofs</tt> for that purpose. If you don't
1803 already have <tt>mkisofs</tt> installed on your system, you need
1804 to install it in order to do this.)<pre>
1805 <b>mkisofs -o openbsd_arc_2.3.iso ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/</b>
1806
1807 </pre>
1808 <li>Start the emulator using this command line:<pre>
1809 <b>gxemul -e pica -X -A -d obsd_arc.img -d b:openbsd_arc_2.3.iso -j 2.3/arc/bsd.rd</b>
1810
1811 </pre>
1812 and proceed like you would do if you were installing OpenBSD
1813 on a real Acer PICA-61. (Answer 'no' when asked if you want to
1814 configure networking, and then install from CD-ROM.)
1815 </ol>
1816
1817 <p>
1818 Once the install has finished, the following command should let you
1819 boot from the harddisk image:
1820 <p>
1821 <pre>
1822 <b>gxemul -X -e pica -d obsd_arc.img ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.3/arc/bsd</b>
1823
1824 </pre>
1825
1826 The system is very sensitive to (I think) kernel stack overflow, so it
1827 crashes easily. If I remember correctly from mailing lists, this also
1828 happened on real hardware.
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840 <p><br>
1841 <a name="debiancats"></a>
1842 <h3>Debian GNU/Linux for CATS:</h3>
1843
1844 Debian GNU/Linux for CATS (ARM) could <i>theoretically</i> run in GXemul,
1845 however:
1846
1847 <ul>
1848 <li>The DEC 21143 NIC is not emulated well enough for Linux to accept it.
1849 <li>Development of Debian for CATS seems to have died? The latest
1850 install kernel is quite old.
1851 </ul>
1852
1853 <p><font color="#ff0000">IT DOES <b>NOT</b> WORK YET!</font>
1854
1855 <p>The following installation instructions would theoretically work:
1856
1857 <p>
1858 <ol>
1859 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
1860 that Debian installs itself onto:<pre>
1861 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=debian_cats.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=3300000</b>
1862
1863 </pre>
1864 <li>Download the tftpboot install kernel:<pre>
1865 <a href="http://ftp.debian.org/debian/dists/oldstable/main/disks-arm/current/cats/tftpboot.img">http://ftp.debian.org/debian/dists/oldstable/main/disks-arm/current/cats/tftpboot.img</a>
1866
1867 </pre>
1868 <li>Start the installation using the following command line:<pre>
1869 <b>gxemul -XEcats -d debian_cats.img tftpboot.img</b>
1870
1871 </pre>
1872 </ol>
1873
1874 <p>It doesn't work, though, because the NIC isn't working well enough.
1875
1876 <p>The only use of Debian/CATS in the emulator right now is as a way to
1877 manipulate Linux disk images, if you are on a non-Linux host. By choosing
1878 "Execute a shell" in the installer's menu, you can have access to tools such as
1879 fdisk and mke2fs, which are useful for creating Linux paritions on disk images.
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887 <p><br>
1888 <a name="netbsdnetwinderinstall"></a>
1889 <h3>NetBSD/netwinder:</h3>
1890
1891 <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/netwinder/">NetBSD/netwinder</a>
1892 could possibly run in GXemul.
1893 <font color="#ff0000">IT DOES <b>NOT</b> WORK YET!</font>
1894
1895 <p>It is tricky to install, because there is (as far as I know) no INSTALL
1896 kernel. One way to install the NetBSD/netwinder distribution onto a disk
1897 image is to install the files using another (emulated) machine.
1898
1899 <p>
1900 The following instructions will let you install the NetBSD/netwinder
1901 distribution onto a disk image, from an emulated DECstation 3MAX machine:
1902
1903 <p>
1904 <ol>
1905 <li>Install NetBSD/pmax 3.0 according to instructions
1906 <a href="#netbsdpmaxinstall">further up on this page</a>.
1907 <p>
1908 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image
1909 that you will install NetBSD onto:<pre>
1910 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_netwinder.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=999000</b>
1911
1912 </pre>
1913 <li>Download the generic kernel and the 2.1 ISO image:<pre>
1914 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/netwinder/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.1/netwinder/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
1915 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/netwindercd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.1/netwindercd.iso</a>
1916
1917 </pre>
1918 <p>
1919 <li>Start NetBSD/pmax like this:<pre>
1920 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img -d nbsd_netwinder.img -d netwinder.iso</b>
1921
1922 </pre>and execute the following commands as <tt>root</tt>:
1923 <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1924 <b>newfs /dev/sd1c
1925 mount /dev/cd0c /mnt
1926 mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/sd1c /mnt2
1927 cd /mnt2; sh
1928 for a in /mnt/netwinder/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
1929 exit
1930 cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
1931 echo rc_configured=YES >> rc.conf
1932 echo "/dev/wd0c / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab
1933 cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt</b>
1934 </pre></td></tr></table>
1935 </ol>
1936
1937 <p>NetBSD/netwinder is now installed on the disk image. But actually
1938 running it does <b>not work yet</b>. Sorry.
1939
1940 <p>Something like the following command line would be used to start
1941 NetBSD, if it worked:<pre>
1942 <b>gxemul -E netwinder -d nbsd_netwinder.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
1943 </pre>
1944
1945 <p>Note: The installation instructions above create a filesystem
1946 <i>without</i> a disklabel, so there is only one ffs partition and no
1947 swap. You will need to enter the following things when booting with the
1948 generic kernel:<pre>
1949 root device (default wd0a): <b>wd0c</b>
1950 dump device (default wd0b): <b>none</b>
1951 file system (default generic): <i>(just press enter)</i>
1952 init path (default /sbin/init): <i>(just press enter)</i>
1953 </pre>
1954
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1962 </p>
1963
1964 </body>
1965 </html>

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