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$Id: HISTORY,v 1.1004 2005/10/27 14:01:10 debug Exp $
20051011        Passing -A as the default boot arg for CATS (works fine with
                OpenBSD/cats).
20051012	Fixing the VGA cursor offset bug, and speeding up framebuffer
		redraws if character cells contain the same thing as during
		the last redraw.
20051013	Adding a slow strd ARM instruction hack.
20051017	Minor updates: Adding a dummy i80321 Verde controller (for
		XScale emulation), fixing the disassembly of the ARM "ldrd"
		instruction, adding "support" for less-than-4KB pages for ARM
		(by not adding them to translation tables).
20051020	Continuing on some HPCarm stuff. A NetBSD/hpcarm kernel prints
		some boot messages on an emulated Jornada 720.
		Making dev_ram work better with dyntrans (speeds up some things
		quite a bit).
20051021	Automatically generating some of the most common ARM load/store
		multiple instructions.
20051022	Better statistics gathering for the ARM load/store multiple.
		Various other dyntrans and device updates.
20051023	Various minor updates.
20051024	Continuing; minor device and dyntrans fine-tuning. Adding the
		first "reasonable" instruction combination hacks for ARM (the
		cores of NetBSD/cats' memset and memcpy).
20051025	Fixing a dyntrans-related bug in dev_vga. Also changing the
		dyntrans low/high access notification to only be updated on
		writes, not reads. Hopefully it will be enough. (dev_vga in
		charcell mode now seems to work correctly with both reads and
		writes.)
		Experimenting with gathering dyntrans statistics (which parts
		of emulated RAM that are actually executed), and adding
		instruction combination hacks for cache cleaning and a part of
		NetBSD's scanc() function.
20051026	Adding a bitmap for ARM emulation which indicates if a page is
		(specifically) user accessible; loads and stores with the t-
		flag set can now use the translation arrays, which results in
		a measurable speedup.
20051027	Dyntrans updates; adding an extra bitmap array for 32-bit
		emulation modes, speeding up the check whether a physical page
		has any code translations or not (O(n) -> O(1)). Doing a
		similar reduction of O(n) to O(1) by avoiding the scan through
		the translation entries on a translation update (32-bit mode
		only).
		Various other minor hacks.
20051029	Quick release, without any testing at all.

==============  RELEASE 0.3.6.2  ==============


1 dpavlin 12 <html><head><title>Gavare's eXperimental Emulator:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Installing and running "guest OSes"</title>
2     <meta name="robots" content="noarchive,nofollow,noindex"></head>
3 dpavlin 4 <body bgcolor="#f8f8f8" text="#000000" link="#4040f0" vlink="#404040" alink="#ff0000">
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6     <td align="left" valign=center bgcolor="#d0efff"><font color="#6060e0" size="6">
7 dpavlin 12 <b>Gavare's eXperimental Emulator:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</b></font>
8 dpavlin 4 <font color="#000000" size="6"><b>Installing and running "guest OSes"</b>
9     </font></td></tr></table></td></tr></table><p>
10 dpavlin 2
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41    
42 dpavlin 12
43 dpavlin 2 <a href="./">Back to the index</a>
44    
45     <p><br>
46     <h2>Installing and running "guest OSes"</h2>
47    
48     <p>
49     <ul>
50     <li><a href="#generalnotes">General notes on running "guest OSes"</a>
51 dpavlin 10 <li><a href="#netbsdinstall">NetBSD/pmax</a>
52     <li><a href="#netbsdarcinstall">NetBSD/arc</a>
53     <li><a href="#netbsdhpcmipsinstall">NetBSD/hpcmips</a>
54     <li><a href="#netbsdcobaltinstall">NetBSD/cobalt</a>
55     <li><a href="#netbsdevbmipsinstall">NetBSD/evbmips</a>
56     <li><a href="#netbsdsgimips">NetBSD/sgimips</a>
57 dpavlin 14 <li><a href="#netbsdcatsinstall">NetBSD/cats</a>
58 dpavlin 10 <li><a href="#openbsdinstall">OpenBSD/pmax</a>
59     <li><a href="#openbsdarcinstall">OpenBSD/arc</a>
60 dpavlin 14 <li><a href="#openbsdcatsinstall">OpenBSD/cats</a>
61 dpavlin 10 <li><a href="#ultrixinstall">Ultrix/RISC</a>
62     <li><a href="#sprite">Sprite for DECstation</a>
63     <li><a href="#declinux">Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation</a>
64     <li><a href="#declinuxredhat">Redhat Linux for DECstation</a>
65 dpavlin 2 </ul>
66    
67 dpavlin 10 <p>In addition to the "working" guest operating systems listed above,
68     you might find the following information interesting:
69     <ul>
70     <li><a href="#mach">Mach/PMAX</a>
71     <li><a href="#openbsdsgiinstall">OpenBSD/sgi</a>
72 dpavlin 14 <li><a href="#netbsdnetwinderinstall">NetBSD/netwinder</a>
73 dpavlin 10 </ul>
74 dpavlin 2
75    
76    
77    
78    
79 dpavlin 10
80 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
81     <a name="generalnotes"></a>
82     <h3>General notes on running "guest OSes":</h3>
83    
84     The emulator works well enough to run complete operating systems. These
85     are often refered to as "guest" operating systems.
86    
87     <p>
88     Although it is possible to let a guest OS access real hardware, such as
89     harddisks, it is much more flexible and attractive to simulate harddisks
90     using files residing in the host's filesystem. On Unix-like systems, files
91     may contain holes, which makes this really simple. To the guest operating
92     system, the harddisk image looks and acts like a real disk.
93    
94    
95    
96    
97    
98    
99    
100    
101     <p><br>
102     <a name="netbsdinstall"></a>
103 dpavlin 10 <h3>NetBSD/pmax:</h3>
104 dpavlin 2
105 dpavlin 4 <p>
106     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
107 dpavlin 6 <a href="20050317-example.png"><img src="20050317-example_small.png"></a>
108 dpavlin 4
109 dpavlin 10 <p>To install <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/pmax/">NetBSD/pmax</a>
110     onto a harddisk image in the emulator, follow these instructions:
111 dpavlin 2
112 dpavlin 10 <p><ol start="1">
113 dpavlin 2 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
114     that NetBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
115 dpavlin 12 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_pmax.img bs=1 count=512 seek=1900000000</b>
116 dpavlin 2
117     </pre>
118     </ol>
119 dpavlin 4
120 dpavlin 2 <p>
121     From this point, there are two separate ways to continue the installation.
122     You can either download a CD-ROM iso image (and let the installation
123     program copy files from the CD-ROM image to the harddisk image), or you
124     can install via ftp. For an installation from a CD-ROM image, follow these
125     steps:
126     <p>
127     <ol start="2">
128    
129     <li>Download a NetBSD CD-ROM iso image:<pre>
130     <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/pmaxcd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/pmaxcd.iso</a>
131     or
132 dpavlin 10 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/pmaxcd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/pmaxcd.iso</a>
133 dpavlin 2
134     </pre>
135     <li>Start the emulator like this:<pre>
136 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img -d bc:pmaxcd.iso</b>
137 dpavlin 2 </pre>
138 dpavlin 10 and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real
139 dpavlin 12 DECstation. Remember to choose <tt>vt100</tt> as your terminal
140     type, and not <tt>rcons</tt>.
141 dpavlin 2 </ol>
142     <p>
143     For an ftp install, substitute steps 2 and 3 above with these:
144     <p>
145     <ol start="2">
146    
147 dpavlin 10 <li>Download a NetBSD pmax INSTALL kernel:<pre>
148 dpavlin 2 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz</a>
149     or
150 dpavlin 10 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz</a>
151 dpavlin 2
152     </pre>
153     <li>Start the emulator like this:<pre>
154 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img -O netbsd-INSTALL.gz</b>
155 dpavlin 2 </pre>
156 dpavlin 10 and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real
157 dpavlin 12 DECstation. Remember to choose <tt>vt100</tt> as your terminal
158     type, and not <tt>rcons</tt>. Suitable networking parameters are as
159     follows:<pre>
160 dpavlin 2 Which device shall I use? [le0]: <b>le0</b>
161     ..
162     Your DNS domain: <b>mydomain.com</b>
163     Your host name: <b>foo</b>
164     Your IPv4 number: <b>10.0.0.1</b>
165     IPv4 Netmask [0xff000000]: <b>0xff000000</b>
166     IPv4 gateway: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
167     IPv4 name server: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
168     </pre>
169 dpavlin 10 (If using 10.0.0.254 as the nameserver fails, then try entering the
170     IP number of a real-world nameserver instead.)
171     </ol>
172 dpavlin 2
173 dpavlin 12 <p>If you want to use a graphical framebuffer during the install, you can
174     add <b><tt>-X -Y2</tt></b> to the command line, and choose <tt>rcons</tt>
175     instead of <tt>vt100</tt> when prompted with which terminal type to use.
176     (By just using <tt><b>-X</b></tt>, you will get a full-size framebuffer
177     window.)
178 dpavlin 2
179 dpavlin 12 <p>When the installation is finished, the following command should start
180 dpavlin 2 NetBSD from the harddisk image:<pre>
181 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
182 dpavlin 2 </pre>
183    
184 dpavlin 12 <p><font color="#ff0000">NOTE:</font> For some reason, NetBSD 2.0.2
185     doesn't work with X out-of-the-box on pmax. It seems that this has to do
186     with NetBSD switching console system to "WSCONS" somewhere between 1.6.2
187     and 2.0. For now, if you want X, then try NetBSD 1.6.2.
188 dpavlin 2
189 dpavlin 12 <p>With NetBSD/pmax 1.6.2, try the following to start with a framebuffer:<pre>
190     <b>gxemul -X -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
191 dpavlin 2 </pre>
192 dpavlin 12 and log in as <tt>root</tt> and type <tt>startx</tt> to start X windows.
193 dpavlin 2
194    
195    
196    
197    
198    
199    
200 dpavlin 12
201 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
202     <a name="netbsdarcinstall"></a>
203 dpavlin 10 <h3>NetBSD/arc:</h3>
204 dpavlin 2
205 dpavlin 14 It is possible to install and run <a
206 dpavlin 10 href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/arc/">NetBSD/arc</a>
207     on an emulated Acer PICA-61 in the emulator.
208 dpavlin 2
209     <p>
210 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
211     <a href="20041024-netbsd-arc-installed.gif"><img src="20041024-netbsd-arc-installed_small.gif"></a>
212    
213     <p>
214 dpavlin 2 To install NetBSD/arc from a CDROM image onto an emulated harddisk image,
215     follow these instructions:
216    
217     <p>
218     <ol start="1">
219     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
220     that NetBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
221 dpavlin 12 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_arc.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=900000</b>
222 dpavlin 2
223     </pre>
224 dpavlin 12 <li>Download a NetBSD/arc 1.6.2 CDROM image, and a generic NetBSD/arc
225     kernel:<pre>
226 dpavlin 2 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/arccd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/arccd.iso</a>
227    
228 dpavlin 12 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/arc/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/arc/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
229 dpavlin 2 </pre>
230     <li>Start the emulator using this command line:<pre>
231 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e pica -x -d nbsd_arc.img -d bc:arccd.iso \
232 dpavlin 6 -j arc/binary/kernel/netbsd.RAMDISK.gz</b>
233 dpavlin 2
234     </pre>
235 dpavlin 6 (Try removing <tt>-x</tt> if you have problems with the xterm.)
236     <p>
237 dpavlin 2 <li>From now on, you have to use your imagination, as there is no
238     automatic installation program for NetBSD/arc. Here are some tips
239 dpavlin 12 and hints on how you can proceed with the install:
240     <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
241     <b>mount /dev/cd0a /mnt2
242     disklabel -i -I sd0</b> (for example 'a', '4.2BSD', '1c',
243     '700M', 'b', 'swap', '701M', '$', 'P', 'W', 'y', and 'Q')
244     <b>newfs /dev/sd0a
245     mount /dev/sd0a /mnt
246     cd /mnt
247     for a in /mnt2/arc/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar xzpf $a; done
248     cd dev; sh MAKEDEV all
249     cd ../etc; echo "rc_configured=YES" &gt;&gt; rc.conf
250     cat > /mnt/etc/fstab
251     /dev/sd0a / ffs rw 1 1
252     /dev/sd0b none swap sw 0 0
253     </b>(press ctrl-d)<b>
254     <b>cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2
255     halt</b>
256     </pre></td></tr></table>
257 dpavlin 2 </ol>
258    
259 dpavlin 10 <p>You can now use the generic NetBSD/arc kernel to boot from the harddisk
260     image, using the following command:<pre>
261 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e pica -x -d nbsd_arc.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
262 dpavlin 2
263     </pre>
264    
265 dpavlin 10 <p>When asked for "<tt>root device: </tt>", enter <b><tt>sd0</tt></b>.
266 dpavlin 2
267    
268    
269    
270    
271    
272    
273     <p><br>
274     <a name="netbsdhpcmipsinstall"></a>
275 dpavlin 10 <h3>NetBSD/hpcmips:</h3>
276 dpavlin 2
277 dpavlin 10 It is possible to install <a
278     href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/hpcmips/">NetBSD/hpcmips</a> onto a disk
279     image, on an an emulated MobilePro 770, 780, 800, or 880. The emulator
280     treats the different machine models as being almost identical; the most
281     important difference is regarding the framebuffer.
282 dpavlin 2
283 dpavlin 10 <p><table border="0">
284 dpavlin 2 <tr>
285     <td width="80">&nbsp;</td>
286     <td><u>Model:</u></td>
287     <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
288     <td><u>Framebuffer size/depth:</u></td>
289     <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
290     <td><u>Framebuffer address:</u></td>
291     </tr>
292     <tr>
293     <td></td>
294     <td>MobilePro 770 (<super>*2</super>)</td>
295     <td></td>
296     <td>640 x 240, 16 bits</td>
297     <td></td>
298     <td>0xa000000</td>
299     </tr>
300     <tr>
301     <td></td>
302     <td>MobilePro 780</td>
303     <td></td>
304     <td>640 x 240, 16 bits</td>
305     <td></td>
306     <td>0xa180100 (<super>*</super>)</td>
307     </tr>
308     <tr>
309     <td></td>
310     <td>MobilePro 800</td>
311     <td></td>
312     <td>800 x 600, 16 bits</td>
313     <td></td>
314     <td>0xa000000</td>
315     </tr>
316     <tr>
317     <td></td>
318     <td>MobilePro 880</td>
319     <td></td>
320     <td>800 x 600, 16 bits</td>
321     <td></td>
322     <td>0xa0ea600 (<super>*</super>)</td>
323     </tr>
324     </table>
325    
326     <p>
327     (<super>*</super>) = not aligned at a 4 KB boundary, so it will not work
328     efficiently with the current bintrans system. Using this mode will still
329     work, but each load and store will be emulated much more slowly than is
330     possible with an aligned framebuffer.
331    
332     <p>
333     (<super>*2</super>) = The MobilePro 770's cursor keys work differently
334     than the other models, for some reason. (This is a known bug.)
335    
336     <p>
337 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
338     <a href="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-1.png"><img src="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-1_small.png"></a>
339     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
340     <a href="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-2.png"><img src="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-2_small.png"></a>
341    
342     <p>
343 dpavlin 2 These instructions show an example of how to install
344 dpavlin 12 NetBSD/hpcmips on an emulated MobilePro 770:
345 dpavlin 2
346     <p>
347     <ol start="1">
348     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
349     that you will install NetBSD/hpcmips onto:<pre>
350 dpavlin 12 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_hpcmips.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1990000</b>
351 dpavlin 2
352     </pre>
353 dpavlin 12 <li>Download the NetBSD/hpcmips 2.0.2 ISO image, and a generic kernel:<pre>
354     <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2</a>/<a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/hpcmipscd.iso">hpcmipscd.iso</a>
355 dpavlin 2
356 dpavlin 12 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/hpcmips/binary/kernel/">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/hpcmips/binary/kernel</a>/<a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/hpcmips/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
357    
358     </pre>
359 dpavlin 2 <p>
360     <li>Start the installation like this:<pre>
361 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e mobilepro770 -X -A -d nbsd_hpcmips.img \
362 dpavlin 6 -d b:hpcmipscd.iso -j hpcmips/installation/netbsd.gz</b>
363 dpavlin 2
364     </pre>
365     and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real
366 dpavlin 12 MobilePro 770. (Install onto wd0, choose "Use entire disk" when
367 dpavlin 2 doing the MBR partitioning, and choose wd1d (not cd0c) as the
368     CDROM device to install from.)
369     </ol>
370    
371     <p>
372     If everything worked, NetBSD should now be installed on the disk image.
373 dpavlin 12 Use the following command line to boot the emulated hpcmips machine:<pre>
374     <b>gxemul -e mobilepro770 -X -d nbsd_hpcmips.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
375 dpavlin 2
376     </pre>
377    
378 dpavlin 12 <p>If you change your mind at this point regarding which machine type to
379     emulate, you might for example prefer a MobilePro 800, then you can change
380     that at any time. NetBSD/hpcmips is designed to be able to boot on many
381     types, without any need to change the kernel.
382 dpavlin 2
383 dpavlin 12 <p>When you have logged in as <tt>root</tt>, you can use <tt>startx</tt> to
384     start X Windows, but there is no mouse support yet so only keyboard input
385     is available. This makes it a bit akward to use X.
386 dpavlin 2
387 dpavlin 10
388 dpavlin 2
389    
390    
391    
392    
393    
394 dpavlin 4 <p><br>
395     <a name="netbsdcobaltinstall"></a>
396 dpavlin 10 <h3>NetBSD/cobalt:</h3>
397 dpavlin 4
398     <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/cobalt/">NetBSD/cobalt</a> is tricky
399     to install, because the Cobalt machines were designed for Linux, and not
400     very flexible. There is no INSTALL kernel for NetBSD/cobalt. One way to
401     install the NetBSD/cobalt distribution onto a disk image is to do it from
402     another (emulated) machine.
403    
404     <p>
405     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
406     <a href="20050413-netbsd-cobalt.png"><img src="20050413-netbsd-cobalt_small.png"></a>
407    
408     <p>
409     The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/cobalt onto a disk
410     image, from an emulated DECstation 3MAX machine:
411    
412     <p>
413     <ol>
414     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image
415     that you will install NetBSD/cobalt onto:<pre>
416 dpavlin 12 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_cobalt.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1999000</b>
417 dpavlin 4
418     </pre>
419 dpavlin 10 <li>Download the generic kernel for Cobalt and the 2.0.2 ISO image:<pre>
420 dpavlin 12 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/cobalt/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/cobalt/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
421     <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/cobaltcd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/cobaltcd.iso</a>
422 dpavlin 4
423 dpavlin 12 </pre>
424 dpavlin 4 <p>
425 dpavlin 10 <li>Install NetBSD/pmax 2.0.2 according to instructions
426     <a href="#netbsdinstall">further up on this page</a>.
427 dpavlin 6 <p>
428 dpavlin 4 <li>Start NetBSD/pmax like this:<pre>
429 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img -d cobaltcd.iso -d nbsd_cobalt.img</b>
430 dpavlin 4
431     </pre>
432     <li>Log in as root (on the emulated 3MAX machine), and execute the
433 dpavlin 12 following commands: (adjust according to taste)
434     <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
435     <b>newfs /dev/sd1c
436     mount /dev/cd0c /mnt
437     mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/sd1c /mnt2
438     cd /mnt2; sh
439     for a in /mnt/cobalt/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
440     exit
441     cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
442     echo rc_configured=YES &gt;&gt; rc.conf
443     echo "/dev/wd0d / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab
444     cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt</b>
445     </pre></td></tr></table>
446 dpavlin 4 </ol>
447    
448     <p>
449     You should now be able to boot NetBSD/cobalt like this:<pre>
450 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -M128 -E cobalt -d nbsd_cobalt.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
451 dpavlin 4 </pre>
452    
453     Note that the installation instructions above create a filesystem
454     <i>without</i> a disklabel, so there is only one ffs partition and no
455     swap. You will need to enter the following things when booting with the
456     generic kernel:<pre>
457     root device (default wd0a): <b>wd0d</b>
458     dump device (default wd0b): <b>none</b>
459     file system (default generic): <b>ffs</b>
460 dpavlin 6 init path (default /sbin/init): <i>(just press enter here)</i>
461 dpavlin 4 </pre>
462    
463    
464    
465    
466    
467    
468    
469 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
470 dpavlin 10 <a name="netbsdevbmipsinstall"></a>
471     <h3>NetBSD/evbmips:</h3>
472 dpavlin 2
473 dpavlin 10 <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/evbmips/">NetBSD/evbmips</a> can run
474     in GXemul on an emulated Malta evaluation board (with a 5Kc or 4Kc CPU).
475 dpavlin 2
476     <p>
477 dpavlin 10 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
478     <a href="20050622-netbsd-evbmips-malta.png"><img src="20050622-netbsd-evbmips-malta_small.png"></a>
479 dpavlin 2
480 dpavlin 10 <p>It is tricky to install, because there is (as far as I know) no INSTALL
481     kernel. One way to install the NetBSD/evbmips distribution onto a disk
482 dpavlin 14 image is to install the files using another (emulated) machine.
483 dpavlin 10
484 dpavlin 2 <p>
485 dpavlin 10 The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/evbmips onto a disk
486     image, from an emulated DECstation 3MAX machine:
487 dpavlin 2
488     <p>
489 dpavlin 10 <ol>
490 dpavlin 12 <li>Install NetBSD/pmax 2.0.2 according to instructions
491     <a href="#netbsdinstall">further up on this page</a>.
492     <p>
493 dpavlin 10 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image
494     that you will install NetBSD onto:<pre>
495 dpavlin 12 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_malta.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=999000</b>
496 dpavlin 2
497 dpavlin 10 </pre>
498     <li>Download the generic kernel and the 2.0.2 ISO image:<pre>
499 dpavlin 12 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/evbmips-mipsel/binary/kernel/netbsd-MALTA.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/evbmips-mipsel/binary/kernel/netbsd-MALTA.gz</a>
500     <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/evbmips-mipselcd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/evbmips-mipselcd.iso</a>
501 dpavlin 10
502 dpavlin 12 </pre>
503 dpavlin 10 <p>
504     <li>Start NetBSD/pmax like this:<pre>
505 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img -d nbsd_malta.img -d evbmips-mipselcd.iso</b>
506 dpavlin 10
507 dpavlin 12 </pre>and execute the following commands as <tt>root</tt>:
508     <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
509     <b>newfs /dev/sd1c
510     mount /dev/cd0c /mnt
511     mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/sd1c /mnt2
512     cd /mnt2; sh
513     for a in /mnt/evbmips-mipsel/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
514     exit
515     cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
516     echo rc_configured=YES >> rc.conf
517     echo "/dev/wd0c / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab
518     cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt</b>
519     </pre></td></tr></table>
520 dpavlin 10 </ol>
521    
522 dpavlin 12 <p>You should now be able to boot NetBSD/evbmips using this command:<pre>
523     <b>gxemul -e malta -d nbsd_malta.img netbsd-MALTA.gz</b>
524 dpavlin 10 </pre>
525    
526 dpavlin 12 <p>Note 1: NetBSD detects a very fast CPU although the emulation isn't
527     really that fast, so emulated delays are very slow. Even on a multi-GHz
528     host, you will need a lot of patience.
529 dpavlin 10
530     <p>Note 2: To select a 4Kc (MIPS32) CPU instead of the default 5Kc
531     (MIPS64) CPU, add <tt><b>-C 4Kc</b></tt> to the command line. With NetBSD
532 dpavlin 12 2.0.2, however, there will be little or no difference in functionality, as
533     NetBSD still runs in 32-bit mode on 64-bit MIPS CPUs. The only difference
534     it makes in practice is that GXemul's binary translation subsystem might
535     run a bit faster (because there are some optimizations for 32-bit
536     emulation that don't work with 64-bit emulation).
537 dpavlin 10
538     <p>Note 3: The installation instructions above create a filesystem
539     <i>without</i> a disklabel, so there is only one ffs partition and no
540     swap. You will need to enter the following things when booting with the
541     generic kernel:<pre>
542     root device (default wd0a): <b>wd0c</b>
543     dump device (default wd0b): <b>none</b>
544     file system (default generic): <b>ffs</b>
545     init path (default /sbin/init): <i>(just press enter here)</i>
546     </pre>
547    
548    
549    
550    
551    
552    
553    
554     <p><br>
555     <a name="netbsdsgimips"></a>
556     <h3>NetBSD/sgimips:</h3>
557    
558     <p>
559     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
560     <a href="20050626-netbsd-sgimips-netboot.png"><img src="20050626-netbsd-sgimips-netboot_small.png"></a>
561    
562     <p><a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/sgimips/">NetBSD/sgimips</a> can run
563     in GXemul on an emulated O2 (SGI-IP32). However, GXemul does not yet
564     emulate the AHC PCI SCSI controller in the O2. (I have mailed Adaptec
565     several times, asking for documentation, but never received any reply.)
566 dpavlin 12 NetBSD can still run in the emulator, as long as it doesn't use SCSI.
567 dpavlin 10
568     <p>For a simple test with the 2.0.2 ramdisk (install) kernel, try
569     dowloading<pre>
570     <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</a>
571    
572 dpavlin 12 </pre>and run&nbsp;&nbsp;<b><tt>gxemul -e o2 netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</tt></b>.
573 dpavlin 10
574     <p>It is possible to set up an environment for netbooting the emulated SGI
575     machine off of another emulated machine. Performing this setup is quite
576     time consuming, but necessary:
577    
578     <p>
579     <ol>
580     <li>First of all, the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" machine must be set up.
581     This needs to have a 750 MB <tt>/tftpboot</tt> partition.
582 dpavlin 12 <a href="#netbsdinstall">Install NetBSD/pmax 2.0.2 from CDROM</a>.
583     (Don't forget to add the extra partition!)
584 dpavlin 10 <p>
585     <li>Configure the nfs server machine to act as an nfs server.
586     Start up the emulated DECstation:<pre>
587 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
588 dpavlin 10 </pre>and enter the following commands as <tt>root</tt>
589     inside the emulator:
590     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
591     <b>echo hostname=server &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
592     echo ifconfig_le0=\"inet 10.0.0.2\" &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
593     echo nameserver 10.0.0.254 &gt;&gt; /etc/resolv.conf
594     echo 10.0.0.254 &gt; /etc/mygate
595     echo /tftpboot -maproot=root 10.0.0.1 &gt; /etc/exports
596     echo rpcbind=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
597     echo nfs_server=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
598     echo mountd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
599     echo bootparamd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
600     printf "client root=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot \\\n swap=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot/swap\n" &gt; /etc/bootparams
601     echo "bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/bootpd bootpd -d 4 -h 10.0.0.2" &gt;&gt; /etc/inetd.conf
602     cat &gt;&gt; /etc/bootptab
603     client:\
604     :ht=ether:\
605     :ha=102030000010:\
606     :sm=255.0.0.0:\
607     :lg=10.0.0.254:\
608     :ip=10.0.0.1:\
609     :rp=/tftpboot:
610     </b>(press CTRL-D)
611     <b>echo "10:20:30:00:00:10 client" &gt; /etc/ethers
612     echo 10.0.0.1 client &gt; /etc/hosts
613     reboot</b>
614     </pre></td></tr></table>
615     <li>Start the DECstation emulation again, and download the
616     NetBSD/sgimips distribution sets:<br>(NOTE: This
617     takes quite some time, even if you have a fast network connection.)
618     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
619 dpavlin 12 <b>cd /tftpboot; ftp -i ftp.uk.netbsd.org</b>
620 dpavlin 10 (log in as anonymous...)
621     <b>cd /pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/sets
622     mget base.tgz comp.tgz etc.tgz games.tgz man.tgz misc.tgz text.tgz
623     quit
624 dpavlin 2 sh
625 dpavlin 12 for a in *.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; rm -f $a; done
626 dpavlin 10 echo 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot / nfs rw 0 0 &gt; /tftpboot/etc/fstab
627     echo rc_configured=YES &gt;&gt; /tftpboot/etc/rc.conf
628     dd if=/dev/zero of=swap bs=1024 count=32768
629     halt</b>
630     </pre></td></tr></table>
631     <li>Download the NetBSD/sgimips GENERIC and INSTALL kernels:<pre>
632     <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz</a>
633     <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</a>
634 dpavlin 2
635     </pre>
636 dpavlin 10 <li>Create a configuration file called <tt>config_client</tt>:
637     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
638     <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul
639     !
640     ! Configuration file for running NetBSD/sgimips diskless with
641     ! a NetBSD/pmax machine as the nfs server.</font>
642 dpavlin 2
643 dpavlin 10 <b>emul(
644     net(
645 dpavlin 12 add_remote("localhost:12444") </b>! the server<b>
646 dpavlin 10 local_port(12445) </b>! the client<b>
647     )
648 dpavlin 2
649 dpavlin 10 machine(
650     name("client machine")
651     serial_nr(1)
652 dpavlin 2
653 dpavlin 10 type("sgi")
654     subtype("o2")
655 dpavlin 2
656 dpavlin 10 load("netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz")</b>
657     ! load("netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz")<b>
658     )
659     )</b>
660     </pre></td></tr></table>
661     ... and another configuration file for the server,
662     <tt>config_server</tt>:
663     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
664     <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul</font>
665     <b>emul(
666     net(
667     local_port(12444) </b>! the server<b>
668 dpavlin 12 add_remote("localhost:12445") </b>! the client<b>
669 dpavlin 10 )
670 dpavlin 2
671 dpavlin 10 machine(
672     name("nfs server")
673     serial_nr(2)
674 dpavlin 2
675 dpavlin 10 type("dec")
676     subtype("5000/200")
677 dpavlin 2
678 dpavlin 10 disk("nbsd_pmax.img")
679     )
680     )</b>
681     </pre></td></tr></table>
682     <li>Boot the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" and the NetBSD/sgimips
683     "<tt>client machine</tt>" as two separate emulator instances:<pre>
684     in one xterm:
685 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul @config_server</b>
686 dpavlin 2
687 dpavlin 10 and then, in another xterm:
688 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul @config_client</b>
689 dpavlin 10
690     </pre>
691     <li>In the NetBSD/sgimips window, choose "<tt>x: Exit Install System</tt>"
692     in the installer's main menu, and then type:<pre>
693     <b>ifconfig mec0 10.0.0.1; route add default 10.0.0.254</b>
694     <b>mount -v 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot /mnt</b>
695     <b>cd /mnt/dev; ./MAKEDEV all; cd /; umount /mnt</b>
696     <b>halt</b>
697 dpavlin 12 </pre>Then, once the client machine has halted, log in as <tt>root</tt>
698     on the server machine and type <tt><b>reboot</b></tt>.
699 dpavlin 10 <p>
700     <li>Once everything has been set up correctly, change
701     <tt>netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</tt> in <tt>config_client</tt> to
702     <tt>netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz</tt> (the GENERIC kernel).
703     </ol>
704    
705     <p>You might want to log in as <tt>root</tt> on the server machine, and
706     run <tt>tcpdump -lnvv</tt> or similar, to see that what the client machine
707     actually does on the network.
708    
709     <p>It should now be possible to boot NetBSD/sgimips using the NetBSD/pmax
710 dpavlin 12 nfs server, using the following commands: (NOTE! Execute these two
711     commands in separate xterms!)<pre>
712     <b>gxemul @config_server</b>
713     <b>gxemul @config_client</b>
714 dpavlin 10 </pre>
715    
716 dpavlin 12 <p>When asked for "<tt>root device:</tt>" etc. on the client machine, enter
717 dpavlin 10 the following values:<pre>
718     root device: <b>mec0</b>
719     dump device: <b>(leave blank)</b>
720     file system (default generic): <b>(leave blank)</b>
721     ..
722     init path (default /sbin/init): <b>(leave blank)</b>
723     Enter pathname of shell or RETURN for /bin/sh: <b>(leave blank)</b>
724     Terminal type? [unknown] <b>xterm</b>
725     ..
726     # <b>exit</b> (to leave the single-user shell)
727     </pre>
728    
729     <p>Note: Netbooting like this is very slow, so you need a lot of patience.
730     For example, when NetBSD says "<tt>nfs_boot: trying DHCP/BOOTP</tt>",
731     there will be a long pause, even on a very fast host machine. The reason
732     for this is mostly because the emulator doesn't deal with timing issues
733     very well, but also because NetBSD tries IPv6 first, before falling back
734     to IPv4.
735    
736    
737    
738    
739    
740    
741 dpavlin 14 <p><br>
742     <a name="netbsdcatsinstall"></a>
743     <h3>NetBSD/cats:</h3>
744 dpavlin 10
745 dpavlin 14 It is possible to install and run
746     <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/cats/">NetBSD/cats</a> in GXemul.
747    
748     <p>
749     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
750     <a href="20051007-netbsd-cats-installed.png"><img src="20051007-netbsd-cats-installed_small.png"></a>
751    
752     <p>
753     To install NetBSD/cats onto a disk image, follow these instructions:
754    
755     <p>
756     <ol start="1">
757     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
758 dpavlin 18 that you will install NetBSD/cats onto:<pre>
759 dpavlin 14 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_cats.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1990000</b>
760    
761     </pre>
762     <li>Download the NetBSD/cats 2.0.2 ISO image and generic + install kernels:<pre>
763     <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/catscd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/catscd.iso</a>
764     <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-GENERIC.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-GENERIC.gz</a>
765     <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/cats/binary/kernel/netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz</a>
766    
767     </pre>
768     <p>
769     <li>Start the installation like this:<pre>
770 dpavlin 16 <b>gxemul -XEcats -d nbsd_cats.img -d catscd.iso netbsd.aout-INSTALL.gz</b>
771 dpavlin 14
772     </pre>
773     and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real
774     CATS from CDROM. (Install onto wd0, and choose wd1c (not cd0c) as the
775     CDROM device to install from.)
776     </ol>
777    
778 dpavlin 16 <p>If everything worked, NetBSD should now be installed on the disk image.
779 dpavlin 14 Use the following command line to boot the emulated CATS machine:<pre>
780 dpavlin 16 <b>gxemul -XEcats -d nbsd_cats.img netbsd.aout-GENERIC.gz</b>
781 dpavlin 14
782     </pre>
783    
784 dpavlin 16 <p>When asked for root device, enter <tt>wd0</tt>.
785 dpavlin 14
786    
787    
788    
789    
790    
791 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
792     <a name="openbsdinstall"></a>
793 dpavlin 10 <h3>OpenBSD/pmax:</h3>
794 dpavlin 2
795 dpavlin 10 Installing <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/pmax.html">OpenBSD/pmax</a> is
796     a bit harder than installing NetBSD/pmax. You should first read the <a
797     href="#netbsdinstall">section above</a> on how to install NetBSD/pmax,
798 dpavlin 2 before continuing here. If you have never installed OpenBSD on any
799 dpavlin 10 architecture, then you need a great deal of patience to do this. If, on
800     the other hand you are used to installing OpenBSD, then this should be no
801     problem for you.
802 dpavlin 2
803     <p>
804 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
805     <a href="20040710-openbsd-pmax.png"><img src="20040710-openbsd-pmax_small.png"></a>
806     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
807     <a href="openbsd-pmax-20040710.png"><img src="openbsd-pmax-20040710_small.png"></a>
808    
809     <p>
810 dpavlin 2 OpenBSD/pmax died at release 2.8 of OpenBSD, so you should be
811     aware of the fact that this will not give you an up-to-date OpenBSD
812     system.
813    
814     <p>
815     Following these instructions <i>might</i> work. If not, then use
816     common sense and imagination to modify them as you see fit.
817    
818     <p>
819     <ol>
820     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
821     that OpenBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
822 dpavlin 12 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_pmax.img bs=1 count=512 seek=900000000</b>
823 dpavlin 2
824     </pre>
825     <li>Download the entire pmax directory from the ftp server: (approx. 99 MB)<pre>
826 dpavlin 12 <b>wget -r <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax/">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax/</a></b>
827 dpavlin 2
828     </pre>
829    
830 dpavlin 12 <li>Execute the following commands:
831     <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
832     <b>mv ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax/simpleroot28.fs.gz .
833     gunzip simpleroot28.fs.gz
834     chmod +w simpleroot28.fs</b> &lt;--- make sure
835     </pre></td></tr></table>
836 dpavlin 2 <li>You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded.
837 dpavlin 10 (I recommend using <tt>mkisofs</tt> for that purpose. If you don't
838 dpavlin 6 already have <tt>mkisofs</tt> installed on your system, you need
839 dpavlin 10 to install it in order to do this.)<pre>
840 dpavlin 12 <b>mkisofs -o openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax</b>
841 dpavlin 2
842     </pre>
843     <li>Start the emulator with all three (!) disk images:<pre>
844 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -M64 -d obsd_pmax.img -d b:simpleroot28.fs -j bsd -d c:openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso</b>
845 dpavlin 2
846     </pre>
847 dpavlin 12 (If you add <tt>-X</tt>, you will run with the graphical
848 dpavlin 6 framebuffer. This is <i>REALLY</i> slow because the console has to
849     scroll a lot during the install. I don't recommend it.)
850 dpavlin 2 <p>
851     <li>Go on with the installation as you would do if you were installing on a real machine.
852     If you are not used to the OpenBSD installer, then this will most likely
853     be a very uncomfortable experience. Some important things to keep in mind are:
854     <ul>
855     <li>rz0 is the rootdisk you wish to install onto.
856     <li>rz1 is the simpleroot image.
857     <li>rz2 is the CDROM containing the "install sets".
858     <li>When asked for the "<b>root device?</b>", enter <b>rz1</b>.
859     <li>At "<b>Enter pathname of shell or RETURN for sh:</b>", press enter.
860     <li>At the # prompt, do the following:<pre>
861 dpavlin 12 <b>fsck /dev/rz1a</b> (and mark the filesystem as clean)
862     <b>mount /dev/rz1a /</b>
863     <b>mount -t kernfs kern kern</b>
864     <b>./install</b>
865 dpavlin 2
866     </pre>
867     and proceed with the install. Good luck. :-)
868     <li>Answer "<b>y</b>" when asked if you wish to configure the network.
869     (See the section about installing NetBSD/pmax for suitable
870     network settings.)
871     <li>Install from "<b>c</b>" (cdrom), choose "<b>rz2</b>" as the cdrom device, and "<b>/</b>" as
872     the directory containing the install sets.
873     </ul>
874     <p>
875 dpavlin 10 <li>For some unknown reason, the install script does not set the root
876     password! The first time you boot up OpenBSD after the install, you
877     need to go into single user mode and run <b>passwd root</b> to set
878     the root password, or you will not be able to log in at all!<pre>
879 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d obsd_pmax.img -d 2c:openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso -j bsd -o '-s'</b>
880 dpavlin 2 </pre>
881     While you are at it, you might want to extract the X11 install sets
882     as well, as the installer seems to ignore them too. (Perhaps due to a bug
883     in the installer, perhaps because of the way I used mkisofs.)
884     <p>
885     Execute the following commands in the emulator:
886 dpavlin 12 <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
887     <b>fsck /dev/rz0a
888     mount /
889     passwd root
890 dpavlin 2
891 dpavlin 12 cd /; mount -t cd9660 /dev/rz2c /mnt; sh
892     for a in /mnt/[xX]*; do tar zxvf $a; done
893     ln -s /usr/X11R6/bin/Xcfbpmax /usr/X11R6/bin/X
894     ln -s /dev/fb0 /dev/mouse
895     echo /usr/X11R6/lib &gt;&gt; /etc/ld.so.conf
896     ldconfig
897 dpavlin 2
898 dpavlin 12 sync
899     halt</b>
900     </pre></td></tr></table>
901 dpavlin 2 </ol>
902    
903     <p>
904     NOTE: It is also possible to install via ftp instead of using a CDROM image.
905     This is not much less awkward, you still need the simpleroot filesystem
906     image, and you still have to manually add the X11 install sets and set the
907     root password, and so on.
908    
909     <p>
910     Once you have completed the installation procedure, the following command
911     will let you boot from the new rootdisk image:
912     <pre>
913 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -X -M64 -o '-aN' -d obsd_pmax.img -j bsd</b>
914 dpavlin 2 </pre>
915    
916     <p>
917 dpavlin 6 (Normally, you would be asked about which root device to use (<tt>rz0</tt>),
918     but using <b><tt>-o '-aN'</tt></b> supresses that.)
919 dpavlin 2
920     <p>
921     When asked for which terminal type to use, when logging in as root,
922 dpavlin 6 enter <b><tt>rcons</tt></b> if you are using the graphical framebuffer,
923     <b><tt>vt100</tt></b> for text-mode.
924     <br>Use <b><tt>startx</tt></b> to start X windows.
925 dpavlin 2
926    
927    
928    
929    
930    
931 dpavlin 10
932 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
933     <a name="openbsdarcinstall"></a>
934 dpavlin 10 <h3>OpenBSD/arc:</h3>
935 dpavlin 2
936 dpavlin 14 It is possible to install and run OpenBSD/arc on an emulated Acer PICA-61
937     in the emulator.
938 dpavlin 2
939     <p>
940 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
941     <a href="20041024-openbsd-arc-installed.gif"><img src="20041024-openbsd-arc-installed_small.gif"></a>
942    
943     <p>
944 dpavlin 2 (You should be aware of the fact that OpenBSD for the ARC platform died at
945     release 2.3, so this will not give you an up-to-date OpenBSD system.
946     See
947     <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/arc.html">http://www.openbsd.org/arc.html</a>
948     for more information.)
949    
950     <p>
951     To install OpenBSD/arc onto an emulated harddisk image, follow these
952     instructions:
953    
954     <p>
955     <ol>
956     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
957     that OpenBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
958 dpavlin 12 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_arc.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=700000</b>
959 dpavlin 2
960     </pre>
961     <li>Download the entire arc directory from the ftp server: (approx. 75 MB)<pre>
962 dpavlin 12 <b>wget -np -l 0 -r <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.3/arc/">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.3/arc/</a></b>
963 dpavlin 2
964     </pre>
965    
966     <li>You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded.
967 dpavlin 10 (I recommend using <tt>mkisofs</tt> for that purpose. If you don't
968 dpavlin 6 already have <tt>mkisofs</tt> installed on your system, you need
969 dpavlin 10 to install it in order to do this.)<pre>
970 dpavlin 12 <b>mkisofs -o openbsd_arc_2.3.iso ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/</b>
971 dpavlin 2
972     </pre>
973     <li>Start the emulator using this command line:<pre>
974 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e pica -X -A -d obsd_arc.img -d b:openbsd_arc_2.3.iso -j 2.3/arc/bsd.rd</b>
975 dpavlin 2
976     </pre>
977     and proceed like you would do if you were installing OpenBSD
978     on a real Acer PICA-61. (Answer 'no' when asked if you want to
979     configure networking, and then install from CD-ROM.)
980     </ol>
981    
982     <p>
983     Once the install has finished, the following command should let you
984     boot from the harddisk image:
985     <p>
986     <pre>
987 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -X -e pica -d obsd_arc.img ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.3/arc/bsd</b>
988 dpavlin 2
989     </pre>
990    
991    
992    
993    
994    
995    
996    
997 dpavlin 14
998 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
999 dpavlin 14 <a name="openbsdcatsinstall"></a>
1000     <h3>OpenBSD/cats:</h3>
1001    
1002     It is possible to install and run
1003     <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/cats.html">OpenBSD/cats</a>
1004     in GXemul.
1005    
1006     <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1007     <a href="20051007-openbsd-cats-installed.png"><img src="20051007-openbsd-cats-installed_small.png"></a>
1008    
1009     <p>To install OpenBSD/cats onto an emulated harddisk image,
1010     follow these instructions:
1011    
1012     <p>
1013     <ol>
1014     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
1015     that OpenBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
1016     <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_cats.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1900000</b>
1017    
1018     </pre>
1019     <li>Download the entire cats directory from the ftp server:<pre>
1020     <b>wget -np -l 0 -r <a href="ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/cats/">ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/cats/</a></b>
1021 dpavlin 18 <b>cp ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/cats/bsd .</b>
1022     <b>cp ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/cats/bsd.rd .</b>
1023 dpavlin 14
1024     </pre>
1025    
1026     <li>You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded.
1027     (I recommend using <tt>mkisofs</tt> for that purpose. If you don't
1028     already have <tt>mkisofs</tt> installed on your system, you need
1029     to install it in order to do this.)<pre>
1030     <b>mkisofs -allow-lowercase -o openbsd_cats_3.7.iso ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/cats</b>
1031    
1032     </pre>
1033     <li>Start the emulator using this command line:<pre>
1034 dpavlin 16 <b>gxemul -XEcats -d obsd_cats.img -d openbsd_cats_3.7.iso bsd.rd</b>
1035 dpavlin 14
1036     </pre>
1037     and proceed like you would do if you were installing OpenBSD
1038 dpavlin 16 on a real CATS. (Install onto <tt>wd0</tt>, don't configure the
1039     network, choose to install distribution sets from <i>disk</i>
1040     <tt>wd1</tt> (i.e. not CDROM) partition '<tt>a</tt>',
1041     relative path '<tt>/</tt>'.)
1042 dpavlin 14 </ol>
1043    
1044 dpavlin 16 <p><b>NOTE:</b> Make sure that you <tt>sync</tt> and <tt>reboot</tt>
1045     correctly once the installation is finished, or the <tt>/dev</tt> nodes
1046     may not have been written correctly to disk.
1047 dpavlin 14
1048 dpavlin 16 <p>Once the install has finished, the following command should let you
1049 dpavlin 14 boot from the harddisk image:
1050    
1051 dpavlin 16 <p><pre>
1052     <b>gxemul -XEcats -d obsd_cats.img bsd</b>
1053    
1054 dpavlin 14 </pre>
1055    
1056    
1057    
1058    
1059    
1060    
1061    
1062     <p><br>
1063 dpavlin 2 <a name="ultrixinstall"></a>
1064 dpavlin 10 <h3>Ultrix/RISC:</h3>
1065 dpavlin 2
1066 dpavlin 4 Ultrix 4.x can run in GXemul on an emulated DECstation 5000/200.
1067 dpavlin 10 (Ultrix was the native OS for these machines, but NetBSD/pmax is
1068     also usable.)
1069 dpavlin 2
1070 dpavlin 4 <p>
1071     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1072     <a href="20040504-ultrix45-boot1.png"><img src="20040504-ultrix45-boot1_small.gif"></a>
1073     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1074     <a href="ultrix4.5-20040706.png"><img src="ultrix4.5-20040706_small.gif"></a>
1075    
1076     <p>
1077     The following instructions should let you install Ultrix onto a disk image:
1078    
1079 dpavlin 2 <ol>
1080     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
1081     that Ultrix installs itself onto:<pre>
1082 dpavlin 12 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=rootdisk.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=800000</b>
1083 dpavlin 2
1084     </pre>
1085 dpavlin 6 <li>Place your Ultrix installation media in your CDROM drive.
1086     (On FreeBSD and similar systems, it is called <tt>/dev/cd0c</tt>.
1087     Replace that with the name of your CDROM drive, or the name of a
1088     .iso image file.) Then, start the emulator like this:<pre>
1089 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -X -A -M64 -e 3max -d rootdisk.img -d bc:/dev/cd0c -j vmunix</b>
1090 dpavlin 2
1091     </pre>
1092     <li>Once the first stage of the installation is done (restoring the root
1093     filesystem), you need to restart the emulator, booting from the
1094     new rootdisk, to continue the installation process.
1095 dpavlin 6 This is done by removing the bootflag ('<tt>b</tt>') from the second
1096 dpavlin 2 diskimage argument:<pre>
1097 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -X -A -M64 -e 3max -d rootdisk.img -d c:/dev/cd0c -j vmunix</b>
1098 dpavlin 2
1099     </pre>
1100     </ol>
1101    
1102     <p>
1103     When the installation is completed, the following command should start
1104     Ultrix from the harddisk image:<pre>
1105 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -X -A -M64 -e 3max -j vmunix -d rootdisk.img</b>
1106 dpavlin 2 </pre>
1107    
1108 dpavlin 10 <p>Ultrix mostly seems to work with dynamic binary translation (which can
1109     be disabled by the <b><tt>-B</tt></b> command line option). If you have a
1110     very fast host machine, and use bintrans, you might experience a weird
1111     timer related bug, which makes it impossible to logon to the system. It is
1112     triggered when the emulation goes faster than any real DECstation machine
1113     was capable of running. A temporary workaround is to add
1114     <b><tt>-I33000000</tt></b> to fix the emulated clock speed to 33 million
1115     instructions per emulated second. (When using <tt><b>-CR4400</b></tt>,
1116     <b><tt>-I16000000</tt></b> should be used instead.)
1117 dpavlin 2
1118     <p>
1119 dpavlin 6 You can experiment with adding <b><tt>-Z2</tt></b> (for emulating a
1120     dual-headed workstation) or even <b><tt>-Z3</tt></b> (tripple-headed), and
1121     also the <b><tt>-Y2</tt></b> option for scaling down the framebuffer
1122     windows by a factor 2x2.
1123     There is also a <b><tt>-z</tt></b> option for supplying names of X11
1124     displays to use. The following example starts Ultrix on an emulated
1125     tripple-headed workstation, on three different displays (<tt>remote1:0.0</tt>,
1126     <tt>localhost:0.0</tt>, and <tt>remote2:0.0</tt>), using no scaledown:<pre>
1127 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -M64 -N -e 3max -jgenvmunix -d rootdisk.img \
1128 dpavlin 6 -XZ3 -z remote1:0.0 -z localhost:0.0 -z remote2:0.0</b>
1129 dpavlin 2 </pre>
1130    
1131     <p>
1132 dpavlin 6 The photo below shows a single Ultrix session running tripple-headed in
1133     GXemul on an Alpha 21164PC, with displays on a Sun Ultra1 (to the left),
1134     on the Alpha itself (in the middle), and on an HP700/RX X-terminal (8-bit
1135     color depth, running off the Alpha) to the right.
1136    
1137     <p>
1138     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1139     <a href="20041209-ultrix-tripplehead.jpg"><img src="20041209-ultrix-tripplehead_small.jpg"></a>
1140    
1141     <p>
1142 dpavlin 2 The X11 displays may differ in bit depth and endianness. Unfortunately,
1143     there is no way yet to set the scaledown factor on a per-window basis, so
1144     the scaledown factor affects all windows.
1145    
1146     <p>
1147 dpavlin 6 (If you didn't use <tt><b>-Z<i>n</i></b></tt> during the installation, and
1148     compiled your own <tt>/vmunix</tt>, then it will not contain support for
1149     multiple graphics cards. To overcome this problem, use the generic kernel,
1150     <tt><b>-j genvmunix</b></tt>, whenever you are running the emulator with a
1151     different setup than the one you used when Ultrix was installed.)
1152 dpavlin 2
1153 dpavlin 4 <p>
1154     A note for the historically interested: OSF/1 for MIPS was quite similar
1155     to Ultrix, so that is possible to run as well. If you are unsuccessful
1156     in installing Ultrix or OSF/1 directly in the emulator, you can always
1157     install it on your real machine onto a real SCSI disk, and then copy the
1158 dpavlin 6 contents of that SCSI disk into a file (using <b><tt>dd(1)</tt></b>), and use
1159 dpavlin 4 that file as a disk image file in the emulator.
1160 dpavlin 2
1161    
1162    
1163    
1164    
1165    
1166     <p><br>
1167     <a name="sprite"></a>
1168 dpavlin 10 <h3>Sprite for DECstation:</h3>
1169 dpavlin 2
1170     Sprite was a research operating system at the University of Berkeley.
1171     The Unix Heritage Society (TUHS, <a href="http://www.tuhs.org">www.tuhs.org</a>)
1172     has made available a copy of a Sprite harddisk image for a DECstation 5000/200.
1173     If you want to find out more about Sprite in general, read
1174     <a href="http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/projects/sprite/retrospective.html">
1175     http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/projects/sprite/retrospective.html</a>.
1176    
1177     <p>
1178 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1179     <a href="20040711-sprite-1.png"><img src="20040711-sprite-1_small.png"></a>
1180     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1181     <a href="sprite-20040711.png"><img src="sprite-20040711_small.png"></a>
1182    
1183     <p>
1184 dpavlin 2 The following instructions should let you run Sprite in the emulator:
1185    
1186     <p>
1187     <ol>
1188 dpavlin 10 <li>Download the Sprite harddisk image:<pre>
1189     <a href="ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/ds5000.bt">ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/ds5000.bt</a>
1190 dpavlin 2 83973120 bytes, MD5 = ec84eeeb20fe77b758370d5e312e4a5e
1191    
1192     </pre>
1193     <li>Start the emulator with the following command line:<pre>
1194 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -X -e 3max -M128 -d ds5000.bt -j vmsprite -o ''</b>
1195 dpavlin 2
1196     </pre>
1197     </ol>
1198    
1199     <p>
1200     The first time you boot up with the disk image, you will be asked a number
1201     of questions regarding network settings. If you feel like entering correct
1202     values, then you should use the following:
1203     <p>
1204    
1205     <pre>
1206 dpavlin 10 Your machine's Ethernet address: 10:20:30:00:00:10
1207 dpavlin 2 Your machine's IP: 10.0.0.1
1208     Subnet mask: 0xff000000
1209     Gateway's Ethernet address: 60:50:40:30:20:10
1210     Gateway's IP: 10.0.0.254
1211     </pre>
1212    
1213     <p>
1214 dpavlin 10 Unfortunately, at the end of <a href="ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/boot.txt">ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/boot.txt</a>,
1215     the following sad statement can be found:
1216 dpavlin 2 <pre>
1217     The bootable Sprite image is meant to be a demonstration of Sprite, not
1218     a robust Sprite system. There are several missing things, such as
1219     floating point and network support.
1220     </pre>
1221    
1222 dpavlin 10 <p>Once you are logged in as root, running <b><tt>xinit</tt></b> will
1223     start the X11 environment.
1224 dpavlin 2
1225    
1226    
1227    
1228    
1229 dpavlin 10
1230 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
1231     <a name="declinux"></a>
1232 dpavlin 10 <h3>Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation:</h3>
1233 dpavlin 2
1234 dpavlin 4 <font color="#ef0000">NOTE: This is experimental, and <i>extremely</i>
1235 dpavlin 2 unstable. During my tests, even pressing the wrong key during the install
1236 dpavlin 10 (for example the wrong cursor key) can cause a kernel Oops. My success
1237 dpavlin 12 rate is probably around 50%.</font>
1238 dpavlin 10
1239 dpavlin 12 <p><font color="#ef0000">I <i>think</i> this has to do with interrupts
1240     from the serial controller. Hopefully using the <tt><b>-U</b></tt> command
1241     line option will reduce the risk for such crashes. (I haven't had time to
1242     come up with a clean solution to this yet; it feels like a buffer overflow
1243     in Linux' serial driver for the 5000/200, but it is also likely that it is
1244     a bug in GXemul.)</font>
1245 dpavlin 2
1246 dpavlin 12 <p><font color="#ef0000">Everything runs extremely slow. Even if you have
1247     a very fast host machine, an install attempt can still take several hours!
1248     </font>
1249 dpavlin 10
1250 dpavlin 2 <p>
1251 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1252     <a href="20041212-debian_1.png"><img src="20041212-debian_1_small.gif"></a>
1253     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1254     <a href="20041212-debian_2.png"><img src="20041212-debian_2_small.gif"></a>
1255     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1256     <a href="20041213-debian_3.png"><img src="20041213-debian_3_small.gif"></a>
1257     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1258     <a href="20041213-debian_4.png"><img src="20041213-debian_4_small.gif"></a>
1259    
1260     <p>
1261 dpavlin 2 The following steps should let you install Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation
1262     onto a harddisk image:
1263    
1264     <p>
1265     <ol>
1266     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
1267     that Debian installs itself onto:<pre>
1268 dpavlin 12 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=debian.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=3000000</b>
1269 dpavlin 2
1270     </pre>
1271     <li>Download an install kernel:<pre>
1272 dpavlin 12 <a href="http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/r3k-kn02/boot.img">http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/</a>
1273     <a href="http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/r3k-kn02/boot.img">installer-mipsel/current/images/r3k-kn02/boot.img</a>
1274 dpavlin 2
1275     </pre>
1276     <p>
1277     <li>For a text-mode installation, start the emulator like this:<pre>
1278 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -U -M64 -o 'console=ttyS3' -d debian.img -O boot.img</b>
1279 dpavlin 2
1280     </pre>
1281 dpavlin 10 (If you want to, you can try <b><tt>-X</tt></b> instead of
1282     <b><tt>-o 'console=ttyS3'</tt></b> on the command line. This will
1283     cause Linux to use the graphical framebuffer. Unfortunately, Linux
1284     does not seem to have a driver for the DZ11 keyboard controller yet,
1285     so you cannot interact with the system. You will see the penguin in
1286     the upper lefthand corner while booting, and nicely rendered Unicode
1287     characters, but that's about it.)
1288     <p>
1289     You need to enter some values during the installation procedure, for
1290     example network settings. The following should work:<pre>
1291     DHCP: No, choose "<b>Configure network manually</b>"
1292     IP address: <b>10.0.0.1</b>
1293     Netmask: <b>255.0.0.0</b>
1294     Gateway: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
1295     Name server addresses: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
1296 dpavlin 2 </pre>
1297     <li>Once the first phase of the install has finished, the following command
1298     should let you boot into Debian, and perform post-install
1299     configuration:<pre>
1300 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -U -M64 -o 'console=ttyS3' -d debian.img</b>
1301 dpavlin 2
1302 dpavlin 10 </pre>Note: All these steps take a lot of time, so you will have plenty
1303     of time to drink lots of cups of coffee.
1304     <p>
1305     <li>It seems that there's a problem with getting a login prompt on serial
1306     console (at least when I've done test installs), so when the
1307     installation is finished and you're supposed to get a login prompt,
1308     you need to press CTRL-C and type <b><tt>quit</tt></b>, and then:
1309     download a normal kernel (<i>not</i> a RAMDISK kernel):<pre>
1310 dpavlin 12 <a href="http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/cdrom/vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02">http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/</a>
1311     <a href="http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/cdrom/vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02">current/images/cdrom/vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02</a>
1312 dpavlin 2
1313 dpavlin 10 </pre>and boot Debian using the following command line:<pre>
1314 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -U -M64 -o \
1315 dpavlin 2 'console=ttyS3 root=/dev/sda1 rw init=/bin/sh' \
1316     -d debian.img vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02</b>
1317    
1318     </pre>
1319     You'll enter single-user mode. You need to add a line to
1320     /etc/inittab, to enable logins via serial console.<pre>
1321     sh-2.05b# <b>echo 'T3:23:respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS3 9600 vt100' >> /etc/inittab</b>
1322     sh-2.05b# <b>echo 'ttyS3' >> /etc/securetty</b>
1323     sh-2.05b# <b>sync; umount /</b>
1324 dpavlin 10 sh-2.05b# <b>halt</b>
1325 dpavlin 2 </pre>
1326     </ol>
1327    
1328     <p>
1329     The system should now be ready for everyday use.
1330    
1331     <p>
1332     Use this command to boot from the completely installed disk image:<pre>
1333 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -U -M64 -o 'console=ttyS3' -d debian.img</b>
1334 dpavlin 2
1335     </pre>
1336    
1337     <p>
1338     [&nbsp;<font color="#ff0000">UPDATE 2005-01-19:</font>&nbsp;
1339     Kaj-Michael Lang noticed that the current CVS-version of
1340     <a href="http://www.linux-mips.org/">linux-mips</a> has
1341     support for keyboards now, on DECstation 5000/200, so it is
1342     possible to run Debian GNU/Linux with framebuffer/keyboard.
1343 dpavlin 6 (Add <b><tt>-X</tt></b> (or <b><tt>-XY2</tt></b>) and remove the
1344     <b><tt>console=ttyS3</tt></b> option.) He has made a kernel available here:
1345 dpavlin 12 <a href="http://home.tal.org/~milang/o2/kernels/">http://home.tal.org/~milang/o2/kernels</a>/<a href="http://home.tal.org/~milang/o2/kernels/vmlinux-2.4.29-rc2-r3k-mipsel-decstation">vmlinux-2.4.29-rc2-r3k-mipsel-decstation</a>
1346 dpavlin 2 It has other problems (ethernet doesn't seem to work, for
1347     example), but at least it doesn't Oops that often.&nbsp;]
1348    
1349    
1350    
1351    
1352    
1353    
1354     <p><br>
1355     <a name="declinuxredhat"></a>
1356 dpavlin 10 <h3>Redhat Linux for DECstation:</h3>
1357 dpavlin 2
1358     <font color="#ff0000">NOTE: This is experimental, and <i>extremely</i>
1359 dpavlin 6 unstable. Read the note about <b><tt>-U</tt></b> in the section on how to
1360     install Debian.
1361 dpavlin 2 </font>
1362    
1363 dpavlin 4 <p>
1364     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1365     <a href="20041129-redhat_mips.png"><img src="20041129-redhat_mips_small.png"></a>
1366 dpavlin 2
1367     <p>
1368     The following steps should let you run Redhat Linux for DECstation in GXemul:
1369    
1370     <p>
1371     <ol>
1372     <li>Download a kernel. This is a Debian kernel, but it works fine:<pre>
1373 dpavlin 12 <a href="http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/cdrom/vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02">http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/</a>
1374     <a href="http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/cdrom/vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02">installer-mipsel/current/images/cdrom/vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02</a>
1375 dpavlin 2
1376     </pre>
1377     <li>Download a root filesystem tree:<pre>
1378     <a href="ftp://ftp.uni-wuppertal.de/pub/linux/mips/mipsel-linux/root/mipsel-root-20011216.tgz">ftp://ftp.uni-wuppertal.de/pub/linux/mips/</a>
1379     <a href="ftp://ftp.uni-wuppertal.de/pub/linux/mips/mipsel-linux/root/mipsel-root-20011216.tgz">mipsel-linux/root/mipsel-root-20011216.tgz</a>
1380     19486676 bytes, md5 = 5bcb725c90209479cd7ead8ad0c4a414
1381    
1382     </pre>
1383     <li>This is the tricky part: Create an ext2 filesystem image called redhat.img using
1384     the filesystem tree you just downloaded. The disk image should have a MS-DOS
1385     partition table (!), and then one or more ext2 partitions.
1386     (Use loopback mount, or similar. This is probably easiest to do on a Linux host.)
1387     However, in order to actually boot the system you need to modify /etc/fstab.
1388     Change<pre>
1389     /dev/root / nfs defaults 1 1
1390     #/dev/sdc1 / ext2 defaults 1 1
1391     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
1392     none /dev/pts devpts mode=0622 0 0
1393    
1394     </pre>to<pre>
1395     #/dev/root / nfs defaults 1 1
1396     /dev/sda1 / ext2 defaults 1 1
1397     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
1398     none /dev/pts devpts mode=0622 0 0
1399    
1400     </pre>(Note sda1 instead of sdc1.)
1401     <p>
1402     <li>To boot Linux, start the emulator like this:<pre>
1403 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -U -M128 -o \
1404 dpavlin 2 "console=ttyS3 root=/dev/sda1 ro" -d redhat.img vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02</b>
1405    
1406     </pre>
1407     </ol>
1408    
1409     <p>
1410     If you need to boot into single user mode, try the following:<pre>
1411 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -U -o "console=ttyS3 root=/dev/sda1 rw init=/bin/sh" \
1412 dpavlin 2 -d redhat.img vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02</b>
1413    
1414     </pre>
1415    
1416 dpavlin 10 <p>Redhat Linux on DECstation in R3000 mode should work fine with dynamic
1417     binary translation, but if things are buggy, it can be disabled by
1418     using the <b><tt>-B</tt></b> command line option.
1419 dpavlin 2
1420     <p>
1421     NOTE: You can add <b>-X</b> and remove <b>console=ttyS3</b> from the command
1422     line, if you want to use a graphical framebuffer. Unfortunately, Linux
1423     doesn't have support for keyboards on DECstation 5000/200 yet, so you cannot
1424     actually interact with the sytem. :-(
1425    
1426     <p>
1427     [&nbsp;<font color="#ff0000">UPDATE 2005-01-22:</font>&nbsp;
1428     Read the 2005-01-19 update in the Debian section above, and then, if
1429     you do not need ethernet support, try Kaj-Michael Lang's kernel compiled
1430     from <a href="http://www.linux-mips.org/">linux-mips</a>' CVS.
1431 dpavlin 14 <a href="http://home.tal.org/~milang/o2/kernels/">http://home.tal.org/~milang/o2/kernels</a>/<a href="http://home.tal.org/~milang/o2/kernels/vmlinux-2.4.29-rc2-r3k-mipsel-decstation">vmlinux-2.4.29-rc2-r3k-mipsel-decstation</a>
1432 dpavlin 2 It should work with framebuffer/keyboard.&nbsp;]
1433    
1434    
1435    
1436    
1437    
1438    
1439     <p><br>
1440 dpavlin 10 <hr>
1441    
1442    
1443    
1444    
1445    
1446    
1447    
1448     <p><br>
1449 dpavlin 2 <a name="mach"></a>
1450 dpavlin 10 <h3>Mach/PMAX:</h3>
1451 dpavlin 2
1452     Read the following link if you want to know more about Mach in general:
1453     <a href="http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/mach/public/www/mach.html">
1454     http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/mach/public/www/mach.html</a>
1455    
1456     <p>
1457     <font color="#ff0000">NOTE: Mach for DECstation requires some files
1458     (called 'startup' and 'emulator') which I haven't been able to find
1459     on the web. Without these, Mach will not get very far. These
1460     installation instructions are preliminary.
1461     </font>
1462    
1463     <p>
1464 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1465     <a href="20041018-mach_pmax.png"><img src="20041018-mach_pmax_small.png"></a>
1466    
1467     <p>
1468 dpavlin 2 The following steps should let you experiment with running Mach
1469     for DECstation in the emulator:
1470    
1471     <p>
1472     <ol>
1473     <li>Compile gxemul with cache emulation: (<b>NOTE: --enable-caches</b>)<pre>
1474 dpavlin 12 <b>./configure --enable-caches; make</b>
1475 dpavlin 2
1476     </pre>
1477     <li>Download the pmax binary distribution for Mach 3.0:<pre>
1478 dpavlin 12 <a href="http://lost-contact.mit.edu/afs/athena/user/d/a/daveg/Info/Links/Mach/src/release/pmax.tar.Z">http://lost-contact.mit.edu/afs/athena/user/d/a/</a>
1479     <a href="http://lost-contact.mit.edu/afs/athena/user/d/a/daveg/Info/Links/Mach/src/release/pmax.tar.Z">daveg/Info/Links/Mach/src/release/pmax.tar.Z</a>
1480 dpavlin 2 7263343 bytes, md5 = f9d76c240a6e169921a1df99ad560cc0
1481    
1482     </pre>
1483     <li>Extract the Mach kernel:<pre>
1484 dpavlin 12 <b>tar xfvz pmax.tar.Z pmax_mach/special/mach.boot.MK83.STD+ANY</b>
1485 dpavlin 2
1486     </pre>
1487     <li>Create an empty disk image:<pre>
1488 dpavlin 12 <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=disk.img bs=1 count=512 seek=400000000</b>
1489 dpavlin 2
1490     </pre>
1491     <li>Load the contents of pmax.tar.Z onto the disk image. This is
1492     complicated, and should be described in more detail some time.
1493     For now, use your imagination. (For example using OpenBSD/pmax:
1494     <i>disklabel -E rz1; newfs -O /dev/rz1a;
1495     mount /dev/rz1a /mnt; cd /mnt; download pmax.tar.Z using ftp;
1496     tar xzvf pmax.tar.Z; mv pmax_mach/* .; rmdir pmax_mach;
1497     mkdir mach_servers;
1498     cd mach_servers;
1499     cp ../etc/mach_init .;
1500     cp ../tests/test_service startup;
1501     dd if=/dev/zero of=paging_file bs=65536 count=400;
1502     cd /; sync; umount /mnt</i>)
1503     <p>
1504     <li>Start the emulator with the following command:<pre>
1505 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -X -d disk.img \
1506 dpavlin 2 pmax_mach/special/mach.boot.MK83.STD+ANY</b>
1507    
1508     </pre>
1509     </ol>
1510    
1511    
1512    
1513    
1514    
1515    
1516    
1517 dpavlin 10 <p><br>
1518     <a name="openbsdsgiinstall"></a>
1519     <h3>OpenBSD/sgi:</h3>
1520 dpavlin 2
1521 dpavlin 10 <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/sgi.html">OpenBSD/sgi</a>
1522     can (almost) run in GXemul on an emulated O2 (SGI-IP32) with root on nfs.
1523    
1524     <p>
1525     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1526     <a href="20050617-openbsd-sgi.png"><img src="20050617-openbsd-sgi_small.png"></a>
1527    
1528     <p><font color="#ff0000">NOTE: I haven't succeeded all the way with
1529     this yet, and this shows/triggers many bugs in the emulator, but some of
1530     it works.</font>
1531    
1532     <p>GXemul does not yet emulate the AHC PCI SCSI controller in the O2. (I have
1533     mailed Adaptec several times, asking for documentation, but never received
1534 dpavlin 12 any reply.) OpenBSD/sgi can still run in the emulator, as long as it doesn't
1535     use SCSI. For a simple test with the ramdisk (install) kernel, try dowloading<pre>
1536 dpavlin 10 <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd</a>
1537    
1538 dpavlin 12 </pre>and run <b><tt>gxemul -e o2 bsd.rd</tt></b>.
1539 dpavlin 10
1540     <p>It might also be possible to netboot. Another emulated machine must
1541     then be used as the nfs root server, and the emulated O2 machine must boot
1542 dpavlin 12 as a <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=diskless&amp;manpath=OpenBSD+Current&amp;format=html">diskless</a>
1543 dpavlin 10 client. Performing this setup is quite time consuming, but necessary:
1544    
1545     <p>
1546     <ol>
1547     <li>First of all, the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" machine must be set up.
1548     This needs to have a 800 MB <tt>/tftpboot</tt> partition.
1549 dpavlin 12 <a href="#netbsdinstall">Install NetBSD/pmax 2.0.2 from CDROM</a>.
1550     (Don't forget to add the extra partition!)
1551 dpavlin 10 <p>
1552     <li>Configure the nfs server machine to act as an nfs server.
1553     Start up the emulated DECstation:<pre>
1554 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
1555 dpavlin 10 </pre>and enter the following commands as <tt>root</tt>
1556     inside the emulator:
1557     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1558     <b>echo hostname=server &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1559     echo ifconfig_le0=\"inet 10.0.0.2\" &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1560     echo nameserver 10.0.0.254 &gt;&gt; /etc/resolv.conf
1561     echo 10.0.0.254 &gt; /etc/mygate
1562     echo /tftpboot -maproot=root 10.0.0.1 &gt; /etc/exports
1563     echo rpcbind=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1564     echo nfs_server=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1565     echo mountd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1566     echo bootparamd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1567     printf "client root=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot \\\n swap=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot/swap\n" &gt; /etc/bootparams
1568     echo "10:20:30:00:00:10 client" &gt; /etc/ethers
1569     echo 10.0.0.1 client &gt; /etc/hosts
1570     reboot</b>
1571     </pre></td></tr></table>
1572 dpavlin 12 <li>Start the DECstation emulation again, and enter the following
1573     commands to download the OpenBSD/sgi distribution:<br>(NOTE: This
1574 dpavlin 10 takes quite some time, even if you have a fast network connection.)
1575     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1576     <b>cd /tftpboot; ftp -i ftp.se.openbsd.org</b>
1577     (log in as anonymous...)
1578     <b>cd pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi
1579 dpavlin 12 mget b*tgz c* e* g* m*
1580 dpavlin 10 quit
1581     sh
1582     for a in *.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
1583     echo 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot / nfs rw 0 0 &gt; /tftpboot/etc/fstab
1584 dpavlin 12 rm *.tgz
1585 dpavlin 10 dd if=/dev/zero of=swap bs=1024 count=32768
1586     halt</b>
1587     </pre></td></tr></table>
1588     <li>Download the OpenBSD/sgi GENERIC and RAMDISK kernels:<pre>
1589     <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd</a>
1590     MD5 (bsd) = f16eaf3dcbd51876db7c25f70e6d8a08
1591     <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd</a>
1592     MD5 (bsd.rd) = 4843e6139d8dd04b03d5f0e33e9a4f7b
1593    
1594     </pre>
1595     <li>Create a configuration file called <tt>config_client</tt>:
1596     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1597     <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul
1598     !
1599     ! Configuration file for running OpenBSD/sgi diskless with
1600     ! a NetBSD/pmax machine as the nfs server.
1601     !
1602     ! This config file is for the client.</font>
1603    
1604     <b>emul(
1605     net(
1606 dpavlin 12 add_remote("localhost:12444") </b>! the server<b>
1607 dpavlin 10 local_port(12445) </b>! the client<b>
1608     )
1609    
1610     machine(
1611     name("client machine")
1612     serial_nr(1)
1613    
1614     type("sgi")
1615     subtype("o2")
1616    
1617     </b>! load("bsd")<b>
1618     load("bsd.rd")
1619     )
1620     )</b>
1621     </pre></td></tr></table>
1622     ... and another configuration file for the server,
1623     <tt>config_server</tt>:
1624     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1625     <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul</font>
1626     <b>emul(
1627     net(
1628     local_port(12444) </b>! the server<b>
1629 dpavlin 12 add_remote("localhost:12445") </b>! the client<b>
1630 dpavlin 10 )
1631    
1632     machine(
1633     name("nfs server")
1634     serial_nr(2)
1635    
1636     type("dec")
1637     subtype("5000/200")
1638    
1639     disk("nbsd_pmax.img")
1640     )
1641     )</b>
1642     </pre></td></tr></table>
1643     <li>Boot the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" and the OpenBSD/sgi
1644     "<tt>client machine</tt>" as two separate emulator instances:<pre>
1645     in one xterm:
1646 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul @config_server</b>
1647 dpavlin 10
1648     and then, in another xterm:
1649 dpavlin 12 <b>gxemul @config_client</b>
1650 dpavlin 10
1651     </pre>
1652 dpavlin 12 <li>In the OpenBSD/sgi window, choose "<tt>s</tt>" (for Shell), and type:
1653 dpavlin 10 <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1654     <b>ifconfig mec0 10.0.0.1; route add default 10.0.0.254
1655     mount -v 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot /mnt
1656     cd /mnt/dev; ./MAKEDEV all; cd /; umount /mnt
1657     halt</b>
1658     </pre></td></tr></table>
1659 dpavlin 12 You might want to log in as <tt>root</tt> on the server machine, and
1660     run <tt>tcpdump -lnvv</tt> or similar, to see that what the client
1661     machine actually does on the network. The <tt>MAKEDEV</tt> script
1662     takes almost forever, so be patient.
1663 dpavlin 10 </ol>
1664    
1665    
1666     <p><font color="#ff0000">NOTE: Everything up to this point should work.
1667     However, the next step (in gray) doesn't actually work:</font>
1668    
1669     <p><font color="#888888">Once everything has been set up correctly, change
1670     <tt>bsd.rd</tt> in <tt>config_client</tt> to just <tt>bsd</tt> (the GENERIC
1671     kernel). It should now be possible to boot OpenBSD/sgi using the NetBSD/pmax
1672     nfs server. (When asked for "<tt>root device :</tt>" on the OpenBSD machine,
1673     enter <tt><b>mec0</b></tt>.)</font>
1674    
1675     <p><font color="#ff0000">But it doesn't work. Probably because GXemul's
1676     implementation of the mec (ethernet card used in the O2) is too much of
1677     a quick hack. For now, use the <tt>bsd.rd</tt> kernel, and (at every
1678     boot) type:</font><pre>
1679     <b>s</b> (for Shell)
1680     <b>ifconfig mec0 10.0.0.1; route add default 10.0.0.254</b>
1681     <b>mount -v 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot /mnt</b>
1682     <b>cd /mnt; usr/sbin/chroot .</b>
1683     <b>sh etc/rc</b>
1684     </pre>
1685    
1686     <p><font color="#ff0000">This will not cause OpenBSD to be booted
1687     normally, but at least a few basic things will work.
1688     By the way, the emulator performs so poorly, that you will have time to
1689     fetch several cups of coffee for each of the steps above.</font>
1690    
1691    
1692    
1693    
1694    
1695    
1696    
1697    
1698 dpavlin 14 <p><br>
1699     <a name="netbsdnetwinderinstall"></a>
1700     <h3>NetBSD/netwinder:</h3>
1701    
1702     <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/netwinder/">NetBSD/netwinder</a>
1703     could possibly run in GXemul. <font color="#ff0000">IT DOES <b>NOT</b> WORK YET!</font>
1704    
1705     <p>It is tricky to install, because there is (as far as I know) no INSTALL
1706     kernel. One way to install the NetBSD/netwinder distribution onto a disk
1707     image is to install the files using another (emulated) machine.
1708    
1709     <p>
1710     The following instructions will let you install the NetBSD/netwinder
1711     distribution onto a disk image, from an emulated DECstation 3MAX machine:
1712    
1713     <p>
1714     <ol>
1715     <li>Install NetBSD/pmax 2.0.2 according to instructions
1716     <a href="#netbsdinstall">further up on this page</a>.
1717     <p>
1718     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image
1719     that you will install NetBSD onto:<pre>
1720     <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_netwinder.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=999000</b>
1721    
1722     </pre>
1723     <li>Download the generic kernel and the 2.0.2 ISO image:<pre>
1724     <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/netwinder/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/netwinder/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
1725     <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/netwindercd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/netwindercd.iso</a>
1726    
1727     </pre>
1728     <p>
1729     <li>Start NetBSD/pmax like this:<pre>
1730     <b>gxemul -e 3max -A -d nbsd_pmax.img -d nbsd_netwinder.img -d netwinder.iso</b>
1731    
1732     </pre>and execute the following commands as <tt>root</tt>:
1733     <p><table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1734     <b>newfs /dev/sd1c
1735     mount /dev/cd0c /mnt
1736     mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/sd1c /mnt2
1737     cd /mnt2; sh
1738     for a in /mnt/netwinder/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
1739     exit
1740     cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc
1741     echo rc_configured=YES >> rc.conf
1742     echo "/dev/wd0c / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab
1743     cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt</b>
1744     </pre></td></tr></table>
1745     </ol>
1746    
1747     <p>You should now be able to boot NetBSD/evbmips using this command:<pre>
1748     <b>gxemul -E netwinder -d nbsd_netwinder.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
1749     </pre>
1750    
1751     <p>Note: The installation instructions above create a filesystem
1752     <i>without</i> a disklabel, so there is only one ffs partition and no
1753     swap. You will need to enter the following things when booting with the
1754     generic kernel:<pre>
1755     root device (default wd0a): <b>wd0c</b>
1756     dump device (default wd0b): <b>none</b>
1757     file system (default generic): <i>(just press enter)</i>
1758     init path (default /sbin/init): <i>(just press enter)</i>
1759     </pre>
1760    
1761    
1762    
1763    
1764    
1765    
1766    
1767    
1768 dpavlin 2 </p>
1769    
1770     </body>
1771     </html>

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