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$Id: HISTORY,v 1.815 2005/06/27 23:04:35 debug Exp $
20050617	Experimenting some more with netbooting OpenBSD/sgi. Adding
		a hack which allows emulated ethernet networks to be
		distributed across multiple emulator processes.
20050618	Minor updates (documentation, dummy YAMON emulation, etc).
20050620	strcpy/strcat -> strlcpy/strlcat updates.
		Some more progress on evbmips (Malta).
20050621	Adding a section to doc/configfiles.html about ethernet
		emulation across multiple hosts.
		Beginning the work on the ARM translation engine (using the
		dynamic-but-not-binary translation method).
		Fixing a bintrans bug: 0x9fc00000 should always be treated as
		PROM area, just as 0xbfc00000 is.
		Minor progress on Malta emulation (the PCI-ISA bus).
20050622	NetBSD/evbmips can now be installed (using another emulated
		machine) and run (including userland and so on). :-)
		Spliting up the bintrans haddr_entry field into two (one for
		read, one for write). Probably not much of a speed increase,
		though.
		Updating some NetBSD 2.0 -> 2.0.2 in the documentation.
20050623	Minor updates (documentation, the TODO file, etc).
		gzipped kernels are now always automagically gunzipped when
		loaded.
20050624	Adding a dummy Playstation Portable (PSP) mode, just barely
		enough to run Hello World (in weird colors :-).
		Removing the -b command line option; old bintrans is enabled
		by default instead. It makes more sense.
		Trying to finally fix the non-working performance measurement
		thing (instr/second etc).
20050625	Continuing on the essential basics for ARM emulation. Two
		instructions seem to work, a branch and a simple "mov". (The
		mov arguments are not correct yet.) Performance is definitely
		reasonable.
		Various other minor updates.
		Adding the ARM "bl" instruction.
		Adding support for combining multiple ARM instructions into one
		function call. ("mov" + "mov" is the only one implemented so
		far, but it seems to work.)
		Cleaning up some IP32 interrupt things (crime/mace); disabling
		the PS/2 keyboard controller on IP32, so that NetBSD/sgimips
		boots into userland again.
20050626	Finally! NetBSD/sgimips netboots. Adding instructions to
		doc/guestoses.html on how to set up an nfs server etc.
		Various other minor fixes.
		Playstation Portable ".pbp" files can now be used directly.
		(The ELF part of the .pbp is extracted transparently.)
		Converting some sprintf -> snprintf.
		Adding some more instructions to the ARM disassembler.
20050627	More ARM updates. Adding some simple ldr(b), str(b),
		cmps, and conditional branch instructions, enough to run
		a simple Hello World program.
		All ARM instructions are now inlined/generated for all possible
		condition codes.
		Adding add and sub, and more load/store instructions.
		Removing dummy files: cpu_alpha.c, cpu_hppa.c, and cpu_sparc.c.
		Some minor documentation updates; preparing for a 0.3.4
		release. Updating some URLs.

==============  RELEASE 0.3.4  ==============


1 dpavlin 10 <html><head><title>GXemul documentation: Installing and running "guest OSes"</title>
2 dpavlin 8 <meta name="robots" content="noarchive,nofollow,noindex">
3 dpavlin 2 </head>
4 dpavlin 4 <body bgcolor="#f8f8f8" text="#000000" link="#4040f0" vlink="#404040" alink="#ff0000">
5     <table border=0 width=100% bgcolor="#d0d0d0"><tr>
6     <td width=100% align=center valign=center><table border=0 width=100%><tr>
7     <td align="left" valign=center bgcolor="#d0efff"><font color="#6060e0" size="6">
8     <b>GXemul documentation:</b></font>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
9     <font color="#000000" size="6"><b>Installing and running "guest OSes"</b>
10     </font></td></tr></table></td></tr></table><p>
11 dpavlin 2
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42    
43     <a href="./">Back to the index</a>
44    
45     <p><br>
46     <h2>Installing and running "guest OSes"</h2>
47    
48     <p>
49     <ul>
50     <li><a href="#generalnotes">General notes on running "guest OSes"</a>
51 dpavlin 10 <li><a href="#netbsdinstall">NetBSD/pmax</a>
52     <li><a href="#netbsdarcinstall">NetBSD/arc</a>
53     <li><a href="#netbsdhpcmipsinstall">NetBSD/hpcmips</a>
54     <li><a href="#netbsdcobaltinstall">NetBSD/cobalt</a>
55     <li><a href="#netbsdevbmipsinstall">NetBSD/evbmips</a>
56     <li><a href="#netbsdsgimips">NetBSD/sgimips</a>
57     <li><a href="#openbsdinstall">OpenBSD/pmax</a>
58     <li><a href="#openbsdarcinstall">OpenBSD/arc</a>
59     <li><a href="#ultrixinstall">Ultrix/RISC</a>
60     <li><a href="#sprite">Sprite for DECstation</a>
61     <li><a href="#declinux">Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation</a>
62     <li><a href="#declinuxredhat">Redhat Linux for DECstation</a>
63 dpavlin 2 </ul>
64    
65 dpavlin 10 <p>In addition to the "working" guest operating systems listed above,
66     you might find the following information interesting:
67     <ul>
68     <li><a href="#mach">Mach/PMAX</a>
69     <li><a href="#openbsdsgiinstall">OpenBSD/sgi</a>
70     </ul>
71 dpavlin 2
72    
73    
74    
75    
76 dpavlin 10
77 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
78     <a name="generalnotes"></a>
79     <h3>General notes on running "guest OSes":</h3>
80    
81     The emulator works well enough to run complete operating systems. These
82     are often refered to as "guest" operating systems.
83    
84     <p>
85     Although it is possible to let a guest OS access real hardware, such as
86     harddisks, it is much more flexible and attractive to simulate harddisks
87     using files residing in the host's filesystem. On Unix-like systems, files
88     may contain holes, which makes this really simple. To the guest operating
89     system, the harddisk image looks and acts like a real disk.
90    
91    
92    
93    
94    
95    
96    
97    
98     <p><br>
99     <a name="netbsdinstall"></a>
100 dpavlin 10 <h3>NetBSD/pmax:</h3>
101 dpavlin 2
102 dpavlin 4 <p>
103     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
104 dpavlin 6 <a href="20050317-example.png"><img src="20050317-example_small.png"></a>
105 dpavlin 4
106 dpavlin 10 <p>To install <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/pmax/">NetBSD/pmax</a>
107     onto a harddisk image in the emulator, follow these instructions:
108 dpavlin 2
109 dpavlin 10 <p><ol start="1">
110 dpavlin 2 <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
111     that NetBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
112 dpavlin 4 $ <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_pmax.img bs=1 count=512 seek=1900000000</b>
113 dpavlin 2
114     </pre>
115     </ol>
116 dpavlin 4
117 dpavlin 2 <p>
118     From this point, there are two separate ways to continue the installation.
119     You can either download a CD-ROM iso image (and let the installation
120     program copy files from the CD-ROM image to the harddisk image), or you
121     can install via ftp. For an installation from a CD-ROM image, follow these
122     steps:
123     <p>
124     <ol start="2">
125    
126     <li>Download a NetBSD CD-ROM iso image:<pre>
127     <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/pmaxcd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/pmaxcd.iso</a>
128     or
129 dpavlin 10 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/pmaxcd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/pmaxcd.iso</a>
130 dpavlin 2
131     </pre>
132     <li>Start the emulator like this:<pre>
133 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -X -E dec -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img -d bc:pmaxcd.iso</b>
134 dpavlin 2 </pre>
135 dpavlin 10 and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real
136     DECstation.
137 dpavlin 2 </ol>
138     <p>
139     For an ftp install, substitute steps 2 and 3 above with these:
140     <p>
141     <ol start="2">
142    
143 dpavlin 10 <li>Download a NetBSD pmax INSTALL kernel:<pre>
144 dpavlin 2 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz</a>
145     or
146 dpavlin 10 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/pmax/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz</a>
147 dpavlin 2
148     </pre>
149     <li>Start the emulator like this:<pre>
150 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -X -E dec -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img -O netbsd-INSTALL.gz</b>
151 dpavlin 2 </pre>
152 dpavlin 10 and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real
153     DECstation. Suitable networking parameters are as follows:<pre>
154 dpavlin 2 Which device shall I use? [le0]: <b>le0</b>
155     ..
156     Your DNS domain: <b>mydomain.com</b>
157     Your host name: <b>foo</b>
158     Your IPv4 number: <b>10.0.0.1</b>
159     IPv4 Netmask [0xff000000]: <b>0xff000000</b>
160     IPv4 gateway: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
161     IPv4 name server: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
162     </pre>
163 dpavlin 10 (If using 10.0.0.254 as the nameserver fails, then try entering the
164     IP number of a real-world nameserver instead.)
165     </ol>
166 dpavlin 2
167 dpavlin 10 <p>(If you don't want to use a graphical framebuffer during the install,
168     you can remove <b><tt>-X</tt></b> from the command line, but then make sure you
169     choose "<tt>vt100</tt>" when prompted with which terminal type to use, and not
170     "<tt>rcons</tt>". If you want to use X, but think that the default framebuffer
171     window is too large, try adding <tt><b>-Y2</b></tt> to the command line.)
172 dpavlin 2
173 dpavlin 10 <p>When the installation is completed, the following command should start
174 dpavlin 2 NetBSD from the harddisk image:<pre>
175 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -X -M64 -E dec -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
176 dpavlin 2 </pre>
177    
178     <p>
179     Use <b>startx</b> to start X windows.
180    
181     <p>
182 dpavlin 10 <font color="#ff0000">NOTE:</font> For some reason, NetBSD 2.0.2 doesn't
183 dpavlin 2 work with X out-of-the-box on pmax. It seems that this has to do with a
184     switch to WSCONS. For now, if you want X, then try NetBSD 1.6.2.
185    
186     <p>
187     If you want to run without the X framebuffer, use this instead:<pre>
188 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -E dec -e 3max -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
189 dpavlin 2 </pre>
190    
191    
192    
193    
194    
195    
196    
197     <p><br>
198     <a name="netbsdarcinstall"></a>
199 dpavlin 10 <h3>NetBSD/arc:</h3>
200 dpavlin 2
201 dpavlin 10 It is possible to run <a
202     href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/arc/">NetBSD/arc</a>
203     on an emulated Acer PICA-61 in the emulator.
204 dpavlin 2
205     <p>
206 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
207     <a href="20041024-netbsd-arc-installed.gif"><img src="20041024-netbsd-arc-installed_small.gif"></a>
208    
209     <p>
210 dpavlin 2 To install NetBSD/arc from a CDROM image onto an emulated harddisk image,
211     follow these instructions:
212    
213     <p>
214     <ol start="1">
215     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
216     that NetBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
217     $ <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_arc.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=900000</b>
218    
219     </pre>
220 dpavlin 6 <li>Download a NetBSD/arc 1.6.2 CDROM image from ftp:<pre>
221 dpavlin 2 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/arccd.iso">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/1.6.2/arccd.iso</a>
222    
223     </pre>
224     <li>Start the emulator using this command line:<pre>
225 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -E arc -e pica -x -d nbsd_arc.img -d bc:arccd.iso \
226 dpavlin 6 -j arc/binary/kernel/netbsd.RAMDISK.gz</b>
227 dpavlin 2
228     </pre>
229 dpavlin 6 (Try removing <tt>-x</tt> if you have problems with the xterm.)
230     <p>
231 dpavlin 2 <li>From now on, you have to use your imagination, as there is no
232     automatic installation program for NetBSD/arc. Here are some tips
233     and hints on how you can proceed with the install:<pre>
234     $ <b>mount /dev/cd0a /mnt2</b>
235     $ <b>disklabel -i -I sd0</b> (for example 'a', '4.2BSD', '1c',
236     '700M', 'b', 'swap', '701M', '$', 'P', 'W', 'y', and 'Q')
237     $ <b>newfs /dev/sd0a</b>
238     $ <b>mount /dev/sd0a /mnt</b>
239     $ <b>cd /mnt</b>
240 dpavlin 6 $ <b>for a in /mnt2/arc/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar xzpf $a; done</b>
241 dpavlin 2 $ <b>cd dev; sh MAKEDEV all</b>
242     $ <b>cd ../etc; echo "rc_configured=YES" &gt;&gt; rc.conf</b>
243     $ <b>cat > /mnt/etc/fstab</b>
244     /dev/sd0a / ffs rw 1 1
245     /dev/sd0b none swap sw 0 0
246     (ctrl-d)
247     $ <b>cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2</b>
248     $ <b>halt</b>
249    
250     </pre>
251 dpavlin 10 <li>Download a generic NetBSD/arc kernel:<pre>
252 dpavlin 2 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/arc/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-1.6.2/arc/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
253    
254     </pre>
255     </ol>
256    
257 dpavlin 10 <p>You can now use the generic NetBSD/arc kernel to boot from the harddisk
258     image, using the following command:<pre>
259     $ <b>gxemul -E arc -e pica -x -d nbsd_arc.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
260 dpavlin 2
261     </pre>
262    
263 dpavlin 10 <p>When asked for "<tt>root device: </tt>", enter <b><tt>sd0</tt></b>.
264 dpavlin 2
265    
266    
267    
268    
269    
270    
271     <p><br>
272     <a name="netbsdhpcmipsinstall"></a>
273 dpavlin 10 <h3>NetBSD/hpcmips:</h3>
274 dpavlin 2
275 dpavlin 10 It is possible to install <a
276     href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/hpcmips/">NetBSD/hpcmips</a> onto a disk
277     image, on an an emulated MobilePro 770, 780, 800, or 880. The emulator
278     treats the different machine models as being almost identical; the most
279     important difference is regarding the framebuffer.
280 dpavlin 2
281 dpavlin 10 <p><table border="0">
282 dpavlin 2 <tr>
283     <td width="80">&nbsp;</td>
284     <td><u>Model:</u></td>
285     <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
286     <td><u>Framebuffer size/depth:</u></td>
287     <td>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</td>
288     <td><u>Framebuffer address:</u></td>
289     </tr>
290     <tr>
291     <td></td>
292     <td>MobilePro 770 (<super>*2</super>)</td>
293     <td></td>
294     <td>640 x 240, 16 bits</td>
295     <td></td>
296     <td>0xa000000</td>
297     </tr>
298     <tr>
299     <td></td>
300     <td>MobilePro 780</td>
301     <td></td>
302     <td>640 x 240, 16 bits</td>
303     <td></td>
304     <td>0xa180100 (<super>*</super>)</td>
305     </tr>
306     <tr>
307     <td></td>
308     <td>MobilePro 800</td>
309     <td></td>
310     <td>800 x 600, 16 bits</td>
311     <td></td>
312     <td>0xa000000</td>
313     </tr>
314     <tr>
315     <td></td>
316     <td>MobilePro 880</td>
317     <td></td>
318     <td>800 x 600, 16 bits</td>
319     <td></td>
320     <td>0xa0ea600 (<super>*</super>)</td>
321     </tr>
322     </table>
323    
324     <p>
325     (<super>*</super>) = not aligned at a 4 KB boundary, so it will not work
326     efficiently with the current bintrans system. Using this mode will still
327     work, but each load and store will be emulated much more slowly than is
328     possible with an aligned framebuffer.
329    
330     <p>
331     (<super>*2</super>) = The MobilePro 770's cursor keys work differently
332     than the other models, for some reason. (This is a known bug.)
333    
334     <p>
335 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
336     <a href="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-1.png"><img src="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-1_small.png"></a>
337     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
338     <a href="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-2.png"><img src="20050427-netbsd-hpcmips-2_small.png"></a>
339    
340     <p>
341 dpavlin 2 These instructions show an example of how to install
342     NetBSD/hpcmips on an emulated MobilePro 800:
343    
344     <p>
345     <ol start="1">
346     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
347     that you will install NetBSD/hpcmips onto:<pre>
348     $ <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_hpcmips.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1990000</b>
349    
350     </pre>
351 dpavlin 10 <li>Download the NetBSD 2.0.2 for hpcmips ISO image:<pre>
352     <a href="ftp://ftp.se.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/">ftp://ftp.se.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2</a>/<a href="ftp://ftp.se.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/hpcmipscd.iso">hpcmipscd.iso</a>
353 dpavlin 2
354     </pre>(You may want to choose a mirror closer to you, if .se is slow.)
355     <p>
356     <li>Start the installation like this:<pre>
357 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -E hpc -e mobilepro800 -X -d nbsd_hpcmips.img \
358 dpavlin 6 -d b:hpcmipscd.iso -j hpcmips/installation/netbsd.gz</b>
359 dpavlin 2
360     </pre>
361     and proceed like you would do if you were installing NetBSD on a real
362     MobilePro 800. (Install onto wd0, choose "Use entire disk" when
363     doing the MBR partitioning, and choose wd1d (not cd0c) as the
364     CDROM device to install from.)
365     </ol>
366    
367     <p>
368     If everything worked, NetBSD should now be installed on the disk image.
369     GXemul does not (yet) support reading the kernel directly from the
370     disk image, so you need to download a generic kernel separately:<pre>
371 dpavlin 10 <a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/hpcmips/binary/kernel/">ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/hpcmips/binary/kernel</a>/<a href="ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/hpcmips/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
372 dpavlin 2
373     </pre>
374    
375 dpavlin 10 <p>The installation is now complete. Use the following command line to
376     boot the emulated hpcmips machine:<pre>
377     $ <b>gxemul -E hpc -e mobilepro800 -X -d nbsd_hpcmips.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
378 dpavlin 2
379     </pre>
380    
381 dpavlin 10 <p>If you change your mind at this point regarding which machine type to
382     emulate, you might for example prefer a MobilePro 770, then you can change
383     that at any time. NetBSD is designed to be able to boot on many types,
384     without any need to change the kernel.
385    
386     <p>When you have logged in as root, you can use <b><tt>startx</tt></b> to
387     start X Windows. (Note: There is no mouse support yet; you can only use
388 dpavlin 2 keyboard input.)
389    
390    
391    
392    
393    
394    
395 dpavlin 4
396    
397     <p><br>
398     <a name="netbsdcobaltinstall"></a>
399 dpavlin 10 <h3>NetBSD/cobalt:</h3>
400 dpavlin 4
401     <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/cobalt/">NetBSD/cobalt</a> is tricky
402     to install, because the Cobalt machines were designed for Linux, and not
403     very flexible. There is no INSTALL kernel for NetBSD/cobalt. One way to
404     install the NetBSD/cobalt distribution onto a disk image is to do it from
405     another (emulated) machine.
406    
407     <p>
408     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
409     <a href="20050413-netbsd-cobalt.png"><img src="20050413-netbsd-cobalt_small.png"></a>
410    
411     <p>
412     The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/cobalt onto a disk
413     image, from an emulated DECstation 3MAX machine:
414    
415     <p>
416     <ol>
417     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image
418     that you will install NetBSD/cobalt onto:<pre>
419     $ <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_cobalt.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=1999000</b>
420    
421     </pre>
422 dpavlin 10 <li>Download the generic kernel for Cobalt and the 2.0.2 ISO image:<pre>
423     <a href="ftp://ftp.se.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/cobalt/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz">ftp://ftp.se.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/cobalt/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC.gz</a>
424     <a href="ftp://ftp.se.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/cobaltcd.iso">ftp://ftp.se.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/cobaltcd.iso</a>
425 dpavlin 4
426     </pre>(You may want to choose a mirror closer to you, if .se is slow.)
427     <p>
428 dpavlin 10 <li>Install NetBSD/pmax 2.0.2 according to instructions
429     <a href="#netbsdinstall">further up on this page</a>.
430 dpavlin 6 <p>
431 dpavlin 4 <li>Start NetBSD/pmax like this:<pre>
432 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -Edec -e3max -d nbsd_pmax.img -d cobaltcd.iso -d nbsd_cobalt.img</b>
433 dpavlin 4
434     </pre>
435     <li>Log in as root (on the emulated 3MAX machine), and execute the
436     following commands: (adjust according to taste)<pre>
437 dpavlin 10 <b>newfs /dev/sd1c</b>
438     <b>mount /dev/cd0c /mnt</b>
439     <b>mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/sd1c /mnt2</b>
440     <b>cd /mnt2; sh</b>
441     <b>for a in /mnt/cobalt/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done</b>
442     <b>exit</b>
443     <b>cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc</b>
444     <b>echo rc_configured=YES >> rc.conf</b>
445     <b>echo "/dev/wd0d / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab</b>
446     <b>cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt</b>
447 dpavlin 4 </pre>
448     </ol>
449    
450     <p>
451     You should now be able to boot NetBSD/cobalt like this:<pre>
452 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -M128 -E cobalt -d nbsd_cobalt.img netbsd-GENERIC.gz</b>
453 dpavlin 4 </pre>
454    
455     Note that the installation instructions above create a filesystem
456     <i>without</i> a disklabel, so there is only one ffs partition and no
457     swap. You will need to enter the following things when booting with the
458     generic kernel:<pre>
459     root device (default wd0a): <b>wd0d</b>
460     dump device (default wd0b): <b>none</b>
461     file system (default generic): <b>ffs</b>
462 dpavlin 6 init path (default /sbin/init): <i>(just press enter here)</i>
463 dpavlin 4 </pre>
464    
465    
466    
467    
468    
469    
470    
471 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
472 dpavlin 10 <a name="netbsdevbmipsinstall"></a>
473     <h3>NetBSD/evbmips:</h3>
474 dpavlin 2
475 dpavlin 10 <a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/evbmips/">NetBSD/evbmips</a> can run
476     in GXemul on an emulated Malta evaluation board (with a 5Kc or 4Kc CPU).
477 dpavlin 2
478     <p>
479 dpavlin 10 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
480     <a href="20050622-netbsd-evbmips-malta.png"><img src="20050622-netbsd-evbmips-malta_small.png"></a>
481 dpavlin 2
482 dpavlin 10 <p>It is tricky to install, because there is (as far as I know) no INSTALL
483     kernel. One way to install the NetBSD/evbmips distribution onto a disk
484     image is to install the files is to do it using another (emulated)
485     machine.
486    
487 dpavlin 2 <p>
488 dpavlin 10 The following instructions will let you install NetBSD/evbmips onto a disk
489     image, from an emulated DECstation 3MAX machine:
490 dpavlin 2
491     <p>
492 dpavlin 10 <ol>
493     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the disk image
494     that you will install NetBSD onto:<pre>
495     $ <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=nbsd_malta.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=999000</b>
496 dpavlin 2
497 dpavlin 10 </pre>
498     <li>Download the generic kernel and the 2.0.2 ISO image:<pre>
499     <a href="ftp://ftp.se.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/evbmips-mipsel/binary/kernel/netbsd-MALTA.gz">ftp://ftp.se.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/evbmips-mipsel/binary/kernel/netbsd-MALTA.gz</a>
500     <a href="ftp://ftp.se.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/evbmips-mipselcd.iso">ftp://ftp.se.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/2.0.2/evbmips-mipselcd.iso</a>
501    
502     </pre>(You may want to choose a mirror closer to you, if .se is slow.)
503     <p>
504     <li>Install NetBSD/pmax 2.0.2 according to instructions
505     <a href="#netbsdinstall">further up on this page</a>.
506     <p>
507     <li>Start NetBSD/pmax like this:<pre>
508     $ <b>gxemul -Edec -e3max -d nbsd_pmax.img -d nbsd_malta.img -d evbmips-mipselcd.iso</b>
509    
510     </pre>
511     <li>Log in as root (on the emulated 3MAX machine), and execute the
512     following commands: (adjust according to taste)<pre>
513     <b>newfs /dev/sd1c</b>
514     <b>mount /dev/cd0c /mnt</b>
515     <b>mkdir /mnt2; mount /dev/sd1c /mnt2</b>
516     <b>cd /mnt2; sh</b>
517     <b>for a in /mnt/evbmips-mipsel/binary/sets/*.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done</b>
518     <b>exit</b>
519     <b>cd dev; sh ./MAKEDEV all; cd ../etc</b>
520     <b>echo rc_configured=YES >> rc.conf</b>
521     <b>echo "/dev/wd0c / ffs rw 1 1" > fstab</b>
522     <b>cd /; umount /mnt; umount /mnt2; halt</b>
523     </pre>
524     </ol>
525    
526     <p>You should now be able to boot NetBSD/evbmips like this:<pre>
527     $ <b>gxemul -Eevbmips -emalta -d nbsd_malta.img netbsd-MALTA.gz</b>
528     </pre>
529    
530     <p>Note 1: NetBSD detects a very fast CPU although the emulation isn't
531     really very fast, so delays take very long. Even on a multi-GHz host, you
532     will need a lot of patience.
533    
534     <p>Note 2: To select a 4Kc (MIPS32) CPU instead of the default 5Kc
535     (MIPS64) CPU, add <tt><b>-C 4Kc</b></tt> to the command line. With NetBSD
536     2.0.2, however, there will be little or no difference in functionality.
537     (NetBSD still runs in 32-bit mode on 64-bit MIPS CPUs.)
538    
539     <p>Note 3: The installation instructions above create a filesystem
540     <i>without</i> a disklabel, so there is only one ffs partition and no
541     swap. You will need to enter the following things when booting with the
542     generic kernel:<pre>
543     root device (default wd0a): <b>wd0c</b>
544     dump device (default wd0b): <b>none</b>
545     file system (default generic): <b>ffs</b>
546     init path (default /sbin/init): <i>(just press enter here)</i>
547     </pre>
548    
549    
550    
551    
552    
553    
554    
555     <p><br>
556     <a name="netbsdsgimips"></a>
557     <h3>NetBSD/sgimips:</h3>
558    
559     <p>
560     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
561     <a href="20050626-netbsd-sgimips-netboot.png"><img src="20050626-netbsd-sgimips-netboot_small.png"></a>
562    
563     <p><a href="http://www.netbsd.org/Ports/sgimips/">NetBSD/sgimips</a> can run
564     in GXemul on an emulated O2 (SGI-IP32). However, GXemul does not yet
565     emulate the AHC PCI SCSI controller in the O2. (I have mailed Adaptec
566     several times, asking for documentation, but never received any reply.)
567     NetBSD can still run, as long as it doesn't use SCSI.
568    
569     <p>For a simple test with the 2.0.2 ramdisk (install) kernel, try
570     dowloading<pre>
571     <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</a>
572    
573     </pre>and run&nbsp;&nbsp;<b><tt>gxemul -E sgi -e o2 netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</tt></b>.
574    
575     <p>It is possible to set up an environment for netbooting the emulated SGI
576     machine off of another emulated machine. Performing this setup is quite
577     time consuming, but necessary:
578    
579     <p>
580     <ol>
581     <li>First of all, the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" machine must be set up.
582     This needs to have a 750 MB <tt>/tftpboot</tt> partition.
583     <a href="#netbsdinstall">Install NetBSD/pmax 2.0.2 from CDROM</a>
584     inside the emulator. (Don't forget to add the extra partition!)
585     <p>
586     <li>Configure the nfs server machine to act as an nfs server.
587     Start up the emulated DECstation:<pre>
588     $ <b>gxemul -M64 -Edec -e3max -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
589     </pre>and enter the following commands as <tt>root</tt>
590     inside the emulator:
591     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
592     <b>echo hostname=server &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
593     echo ifconfig_le0=\"inet 10.0.0.2\" &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
594     echo nameserver 10.0.0.254 &gt;&gt; /etc/resolv.conf
595     echo 10.0.0.254 &gt; /etc/mygate
596     echo /tftpboot -maproot=root 10.0.0.1 &gt; /etc/exports
597     echo rpcbind=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
598     echo nfs_server=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
599     echo mountd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
600     echo bootparamd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
601     printf "client root=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot \\\n swap=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot/swap\n" &gt; /etc/bootparams
602     echo "bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/sbin/bootpd bootpd -d 4 -h 10.0.0.2" &gt;&gt; /etc/inetd.conf
603     cat &gt;&gt; /etc/bootptab
604     client:\
605     :ht=ether:\
606     :ha=102030000010:\
607     :sm=255.0.0.0:\
608     :lg=10.0.0.254:\
609     :ip=10.0.0.1:\
610     :rp=/tftpboot:
611     </b>(press CTRL-D)
612     <b>echo "10:20:30:00:00:10 client" &gt; /etc/ethers
613     echo 10.0.0.1 client &gt; /etc/hosts
614     reboot</b>
615     </pre></td></tr></table>
616     <li>Start the DECstation emulation again, and download the
617     NetBSD/sgimips distribution sets:<br>(NOTE: This
618     takes quite some time, even if you have a fast network connection.)
619     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
620     <b>cd /tftpboot; ftp -i ftp.se.netbsd.org</b>
621     (log in as anonymous...)
622     <b>cd /pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/sets
623     mget base.tgz comp.tgz etc.tgz games.tgz man.tgz misc.tgz text.tgz
624     quit
625 dpavlin 2 sh
626 dpavlin 10 for a in *.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
627     echo 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot / nfs rw 0 0 &gt; /tftpboot/etc/fstab
628     echo rc_configured=YES &gt;&gt; /tftpboot/etc/rc.conf
629     dd if=/dev/zero of=swap bs=1024 count=32768
630     halt</b>
631     </pre></td></tr></table>
632     <li>Download the NetBSD/sgimips GENERIC and INSTALL kernels:<pre>
633     <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz</a>
634     <a href="ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz">ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-2.0.2/sgimips/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</a>
635 dpavlin 2
636     </pre>
637 dpavlin 10 <li>Create a configuration file called <tt>config_client</tt>:
638     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
639     <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul
640     !
641     ! Configuration file for running NetBSD/sgimips diskless with
642     ! a NetBSD/pmax machine as the nfs server.</font>
643 dpavlin 2
644 dpavlin 10 <b>emul(
645     net(
646     add_remote("127.0.0.1:12444") </b>! the server<b>
647     local_port(12445) </b>! the client<b>
648     )
649 dpavlin 2
650 dpavlin 10 machine(
651     name("client machine")
652     serial_nr(1)
653 dpavlin 2
654 dpavlin 10 type("sgi")
655     subtype("o2")
656 dpavlin 2
657 dpavlin 10 load("netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz")</b>
658     ! load("netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz")<b>
659     )
660     )</b>
661     </pre></td></tr></table>
662     ... and another configuration file for the server,
663     <tt>config_server</tt>:
664     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
665     <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul</font>
666     <b>emul(
667     net(
668     local_port(12444) </b>! the server<b>
669     add_remote("127.0.0.1:12445") </b>! the client<b>
670     )
671 dpavlin 2
672 dpavlin 10 machine(
673     name("nfs server")
674     serial_nr(2)
675 dpavlin 2
676 dpavlin 10 type("dec")
677     subtype("5000/200")
678 dpavlin 2
679 dpavlin 10 disk("nbsd_pmax.img")
680     )
681     )</b>
682     </pre></td></tr></table>
683     <li>Boot the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" and the NetBSD/sgimips
684     "<tt>client machine</tt>" as two separate emulator instances:<pre>
685     in one xterm:
686     $ <b>gxemul @config_server</b>
687 dpavlin 2
688 dpavlin 10 and then, in another xterm:
689     $ <b>gxemul @config_client</b>
690    
691     </pre>
692     <li>In the NetBSD/sgimips window, choose "<tt>x: Exit Install System</tt>"
693     in the installer's main menu, and then type:<pre>
694     <b>ifconfig mec0 10.0.0.1; route add default 10.0.0.254</b>
695     <b>mount -v 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot /mnt</b>
696     <b>cd /mnt/dev; ./MAKEDEV all; cd /; umount /mnt</b>
697     <b>halt</b>
698     </pre>Then log in as <tt>root</tt> on the server machine and type
699     <tt><b>reboot</b></tt>.
700     <p>
701     <li>Once everything has been set up correctly, change
702     <tt>netbsd-INSTALL32_IP3x.gz</tt> in <tt>config_client</tt> to
703     <tt>netbsd-GENERIC32_IP3x.gz</tt> (the GENERIC kernel).
704     </ol>
705    
706     <p>You might want to log in as <tt>root</tt> on the server machine, and
707     run <tt>tcpdump -lnvv</tt> or similar, to see that what the client machine
708     actually does on the network.
709    
710     <p>It should now be possible to boot NetBSD/sgimips using the NetBSD/pmax
711     nfs server, using the following commands: (NOTE! Execute these in two
712     separate xterms!)<pre>
713     $ <b>gxemul @config_server</b>
714     $ <b>gxemul @config_client</b>
715     </pre>
716    
717     <p>When asked for "<tt>root device:</tt>" etc. on the clientmachine, enter
718     the following values:<pre>
719     root device: <b>mec0</b>
720     dump device: <b>(leave blank)</b>
721     file system (default generic): <b>(leave blank)</b>
722     ..
723     init path (default /sbin/init): <b>(leave blank)</b>
724     Enter pathname of shell or RETURN for /bin/sh: <b>(leave blank)</b>
725     Terminal type? [unknown] <b>xterm</b>
726     ..
727     # <b>exit</b> (to leave the single-user shell)
728     </pre>
729    
730     <p>Note: Netbooting like this is very slow, so you need a lot of patience.
731     For example, when NetBSD says "<tt>nfs_boot: trying DHCP/BOOTP</tt>",
732     there will be a long pause, even on a very fast host machine. The reason
733     for this is mostly because the emulator doesn't deal with timing issues
734     very well, but also because NetBSD tries IPv6 first, before falling back
735     to IPv4.
736    
737    
738    
739    
740    
741    
742    
743 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
744     <a name="openbsdinstall"></a>
745 dpavlin 10 <h3>OpenBSD/pmax:</h3>
746 dpavlin 2
747 dpavlin 10 Installing <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/pmax.html">OpenBSD/pmax</a> is
748     a bit harder than installing NetBSD/pmax. You should first read the <a
749     href="#netbsdinstall">section above</a> on how to install NetBSD/pmax,
750 dpavlin 2 before continuing here. If you have never installed OpenBSD on any
751 dpavlin 10 architecture, then you need a great deal of patience to do this. If, on
752     the other hand you are used to installing OpenBSD, then this should be no
753     problem for you.
754 dpavlin 2
755     <p>
756 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
757     <a href="20040710-openbsd-pmax.png"><img src="20040710-openbsd-pmax_small.png"></a>
758     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
759     <a href="openbsd-pmax-20040710.png"><img src="openbsd-pmax-20040710_small.png"></a>
760    
761     <p>
762 dpavlin 2 OpenBSD/pmax died at release 2.8 of OpenBSD, so you should be
763     aware of the fact that this will not give you an up-to-date OpenBSD
764     system.
765    
766     <p>
767     Following these instructions <i>might</i> work. If not, then use
768     common sense and imagination to modify them as you see fit.
769    
770     <p>
771     <ol>
772     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
773     that OpenBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
774 dpavlin 4 $ <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_pmax.img bs=1 count=512 seek=900000000</b>
775 dpavlin 2
776     </pre>
777     <li>Download the entire pmax directory from the ftp server: (approx. 99 MB)<pre>
778     $ <b>wget -r <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax/">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax/</a></b>
779    
780     </pre>
781    
782     <li>Execute the following commands:<pre>
783     $ <b>mv ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax/simpleroot28.fs.gz .</b>
784     $ <b>gunzip simpleroot28.fs.gz</b>
785     $ <b>chmod +w simpleroot28.fs</b> &lt;--- make sure
786    
787     </pre>
788     <li>You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded.
789 dpavlin 10 (I recommend using <tt>mkisofs</tt> for that purpose. If you don't
790 dpavlin 6 already have <tt>mkisofs</tt> installed on your system, you need
791 dpavlin 10 to install it in order to do this.)<pre>
792 dpavlin 2 $ <b>mkisofs -o openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.8/pmax</b>
793    
794     </pre>
795     <li>Start the emulator with all three (!) disk images:<pre>
796 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -E dec -e 3max -d obsd_pmax.img -d b:simpleroot28.fs -j bsd -d c:openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso</b>
797 dpavlin 2
798     </pre>
799 dpavlin 6 (If you add <tt><b>-X</b></tt>, you will run with the graphical
800     framebuffer. This is <i>REALLY</i> slow because the console has to
801     scroll a lot during the install. I don't recommend it.)
802 dpavlin 2 <p>
803     <li>Go on with the installation as you would do if you were installing on a real machine.
804     If you are not used to the OpenBSD installer, then this will most likely
805     be a very uncomfortable experience. Some important things to keep in mind are:
806     <ul>
807     <li>rz0 is the rootdisk you wish to install onto.
808     <li>rz1 is the simpleroot image.
809     <li>rz2 is the CDROM containing the "install sets".
810     <li>When asked for the "<b>root device?</b>", enter <b>rz1</b>.
811     <li>At "<b>Enter pathname of shell or RETURN for sh:</b>", press enter.
812     <li>At the # prompt, do the following:<pre>
813     $ <b>fsck /dev/rz1a</b> (and mark the filesystem as clean)
814     $ <b>mount /dev/rz1a /</b>
815     $ <b>mount -t kernfs kern kern</b>
816     $ <b>./install</b>
817    
818     </pre>
819     and proceed with the install. Good luck. :-)
820     <li>Answer "<b>y</b>" when asked if you wish to configure the network.
821     (See the section about installing NetBSD/pmax for suitable
822     network settings.)
823     <li>Install from "<b>c</b>" (cdrom), choose "<b>rz2</b>" as the cdrom device, and "<b>/</b>" as
824     the directory containing the install sets.
825     </ul>
826     <p>
827 dpavlin 10 <li>For some unknown reason, the install script does not set the root
828     password! The first time you boot up OpenBSD after the install, you
829     need to go into single user mode and run <b>passwd root</b> to set
830     the root password, or you will not be able to log in at all!<pre>
831     $ <b>gxemul -E dec -e 3max -d obsd_pmax.img -d 2c:openbsd_pmax_2.8.iso -j bsd -o '-s'</b>
832 dpavlin 2 </pre>
833     While you are at it, you might want to extract the X11 install sets
834     as well, as the installer seems to ignore them too. (Perhaps due to a bug
835     in the installer, perhaps because of the way I used mkisofs.)
836     <p>
837     Execute the following commands in the emulator:
838     <pre>
839 dpavlin 10 <b>fsck /dev/rz0a</b>
840     <b>mount /</b>
841     <b>passwd root</b>
842 dpavlin 2
843 dpavlin 10 <b>cd /; mount -t cd9660 /dev/rz2c /mnt; sh</b>
844     <b>for a in /mnt/[xX]*; do tar zxvf $a; done</b>
845     <b>ln -s /usr/X11R6/bin/Xcfbpmax /usr/X11R6/bin/X</b>
846     <b>ln -s /dev/fb0 /dev/mouse</b>
847     <b>echo /usr/X11R6/lib >> /etc/ld.so.conf</b>
848     <b>ldconfig</b>
849 dpavlin 2
850 dpavlin 10 <b>sync</b>
851     <b>halt</b>
852 dpavlin 2 </pre>
853     </ol>
854    
855     <p>
856     NOTE: It is also possible to install via ftp instead of using a CDROM image.
857     This is not much less awkward, you still need the simpleroot filesystem
858     image, and you still have to manually add the X11 install sets and set the
859     root password, and so on.
860    
861     <p>
862     Once you have completed the installation procedure, the following command
863     will let you boot from the new rootdisk image:
864     <pre>
865 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -E dec -e 3max -X -M64 -o '-aN' -d obsd_pmax.img -j bsd</b>
866 dpavlin 2 </pre>
867    
868     <p>
869 dpavlin 6 (Normally, you would be asked about which root device to use (<tt>rz0</tt>),
870     but using <b><tt>-o '-aN'</tt></b> supresses that.)
871 dpavlin 2
872     <p>
873     When asked for which terminal type to use, when logging in as root,
874 dpavlin 6 enter <b><tt>rcons</tt></b> if you are using the graphical framebuffer,
875     <b><tt>vt100</tt></b> for text-mode.
876     <br>Use <b><tt>startx</tt></b> to start X windows.
877 dpavlin 2
878    
879    
880    
881    
882    
883 dpavlin 10
884 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
885     <a name="openbsdarcinstall"></a>
886 dpavlin 10 <h3>OpenBSD/arc:</h3>
887 dpavlin 2
888     It is possible to run OpenBSD/arc on an emulated Acer PICA-61 in the
889     emulator.
890    
891     <p>
892 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
893     <a href="20041024-openbsd-arc-installed.gif"><img src="20041024-openbsd-arc-installed_small.gif"></a>
894    
895     <p>
896 dpavlin 2 (You should be aware of the fact that OpenBSD for the ARC platform died at
897     release 2.3, so this will not give you an up-to-date OpenBSD system.
898     See
899     <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/arc.html">http://www.openbsd.org/arc.html</a>
900     for more information.)
901    
902     <p>
903     To install OpenBSD/arc onto an emulated harddisk image, follow these
904     instructions:
905    
906     <p>
907     <ol>
908     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
909     that OpenBSD installs itself onto:<pre>
910     $ <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=obsd_arc.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=700000</b>
911    
912     </pre>
913     <li>Download the entire arc directory from the ftp server: (approx. 75 MB)<pre>
914     $ <b>wget -np -l 0 -r <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.3/arc/">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.3/arc/</a></b>
915    
916     </pre>
917    
918     <li>You now need to make an ISO image of the entire directory you downloaded.
919 dpavlin 10 (I recommend using <tt>mkisofs</tt> for that purpose. If you don't
920 dpavlin 6 already have <tt>mkisofs</tt> installed on your system, you need
921 dpavlin 10 to install it in order to do this.)<pre>
922 dpavlin 2 $ <b>mkisofs -o openbsd_arc_2.3.iso ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/</b>
923    
924     </pre>
925     <li>Start the emulator using this command line:<pre>
926 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -X -E arc -e pica -d obsd_arc.img -d b:openbsd_arc_2.3.iso -j 2.3/arc/bsd.rd</b>
927 dpavlin 2
928     </pre>
929     and proceed like you would do if you were installing OpenBSD
930     on a real Acer PICA-61. (Answer 'no' when asked if you want to
931     configure networking, and then install from CD-ROM.)
932     </ol>
933    
934     <p>
935     Once the install has finished, the following command should let you
936     boot from the harddisk image:
937     <p>
938     <pre>
939 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -X -E arc -e pica -d obsd_arc.img ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/2.3/arc/bsd</b>
940 dpavlin 2
941     </pre>
942    
943    
944    
945    
946    
947    
948    
949     <p><br>
950     <a name="ultrixinstall"></a>
951 dpavlin 10 <h3>Ultrix/RISC:</h3>
952 dpavlin 2
953 dpavlin 4 Ultrix 4.x can run in GXemul on an emulated DECstation 5000/200.
954 dpavlin 10 (Ultrix was the native OS for these machines, but NetBSD/pmax is
955     also usable.)
956 dpavlin 2
957 dpavlin 4 <p>
958     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
959     <a href="20040504-ultrix45-boot1.png"><img src="20040504-ultrix45-boot1_small.gif"></a>
960     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
961     <a href="ultrix4.5-20040706.png"><img src="ultrix4.5-20040706_small.gif"></a>
962    
963     <p>
964     The following instructions should let you install Ultrix onto a disk image:
965    
966 dpavlin 2 <ol>
967     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
968     that Ultrix installs itself onto:<pre>
969     $ <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=rootdisk.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=800000</b>
970    
971     </pre>
972 dpavlin 6 <li>Place your Ultrix installation media in your CDROM drive.
973     (On FreeBSD and similar systems, it is called <tt>/dev/cd0c</tt>.
974     Replace that with the name of your CDROM drive, or the name of a
975     .iso image file.) Then, start the emulator like this:<pre>
976 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -X -M64 -E dec -e 3max -d rootdisk.img -d bc:/dev/cd0c -j vmunix</b>
977 dpavlin 2
978     </pre>
979     <li>Once the first stage of the installation is done (restoring the root
980     filesystem), you need to restart the emulator, booting from the
981     new rootdisk, to continue the installation process.
982 dpavlin 6 This is done by removing the bootflag ('<tt>b</tt>') from the second
983 dpavlin 2 diskimage argument:<pre>
984 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -X -M64 -E dec -e 3max -d rootdisk.img -d c:/dev/cd0c -j vmunix</b>
985 dpavlin 2
986     </pre>
987     </ol>
988    
989     <p>
990     When the installation is completed, the following command should start
991     Ultrix from the harddisk image:<pre>
992 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -X -M64 -E dec -e 3max -j vmunix -d rootdisk.img</b>
993 dpavlin 2 </pre>
994    
995 dpavlin 10 <p>Ultrix mostly seems to work with dynamic binary translation (which can
996     be disabled by the <b><tt>-B</tt></b> command line option). If you have a
997     very fast host machine, and use bintrans, you might experience a weird
998     timer related bug, which makes it impossible to logon to the system. It is
999     triggered when the emulation goes faster than any real DECstation machine
1000     was capable of running. A temporary workaround is to add
1001     <b><tt>-I33000000</tt></b> to fix the emulated clock speed to 33 million
1002     instructions per emulated second. (When using <tt><b>-CR4400</b></tt>,
1003     <b><tt>-I16000000</tt></b> should be used instead.)
1004 dpavlin 2
1005     <p>
1006 dpavlin 6 You can experiment with adding <b><tt>-Z2</tt></b> (for emulating a
1007     dual-headed workstation) or even <b><tt>-Z3</tt></b> (tripple-headed), and
1008     also the <b><tt>-Y2</tt></b> option for scaling down the framebuffer
1009     windows by a factor 2x2.
1010     There is also a <b><tt>-z</tt></b> option for supplying names of X11
1011     displays to use. The following example starts Ultrix on an emulated
1012     tripple-headed workstation, on three different displays (<tt>remote1:0.0</tt>,
1013     <tt>localhost:0.0</tt>, and <tt>remote2:0.0</tt>), using no scaledown:<pre>
1014 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -M64 -N -E dec -e 3max -jgenvmunix -d rootdisk.img \
1015 dpavlin 6 -XZ3 -z remote1:0.0 -z localhost:0.0 -z remote2:0.0</b>
1016 dpavlin 2 </pre>
1017    
1018     <p>
1019 dpavlin 6 The photo below shows a single Ultrix session running tripple-headed in
1020     GXemul on an Alpha 21164PC, with displays on a Sun Ultra1 (to the left),
1021     on the Alpha itself (in the middle), and on an HP700/RX X-terminal (8-bit
1022     color depth, running off the Alpha) to the right.
1023    
1024     <p>
1025     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1026     <a href="20041209-ultrix-tripplehead.jpg"><img src="20041209-ultrix-tripplehead_small.jpg"></a>
1027    
1028     <p>
1029 dpavlin 2 The X11 displays may differ in bit depth and endianness. Unfortunately,
1030     there is no way yet to set the scaledown factor on a per-window basis, so
1031     the scaledown factor affects all windows.
1032    
1033     <p>
1034 dpavlin 6 (If you didn't use <tt><b>-Z<i>n</i></b></tt> during the installation, and
1035     compiled your own <tt>/vmunix</tt>, then it will not contain support for
1036     multiple graphics cards. To overcome this problem, use the generic kernel,
1037     <tt><b>-j genvmunix</b></tt>, whenever you are running the emulator with a
1038     different setup than the one you used when Ultrix was installed.)
1039 dpavlin 2
1040 dpavlin 4 <p>
1041     A note for the historically interested: OSF/1 for MIPS was quite similar
1042     to Ultrix, so that is possible to run as well. If you are unsuccessful
1043     in installing Ultrix or OSF/1 directly in the emulator, you can always
1044     install it on your real machine onto a real SCSI disk, and then copy the
1045 dpavlin 6 contents of that SCSI disk into a file (using <b><tt>dd(1)</tt></b>), and use
1046 dpavlin 4 that file as a disk image file in the emulator.
1047 dpavlin 2
1048    
1049    
1050    
1051    
1052    
1053     <p><br>
1054     <a name="sprite"></a>
1055 dpavlin 10 <h3>Sprite for DECstation:</h3>
1056 dpavlin 2
1057     Sprite was a research operating system at the University of Berkeley.
1058     The Unix Heritage Society (TUHS, <a href="http://www.tuhs.org">www.tuhs.org</a>)
1059     has made available a copy of a Sprite harddisk image for a DECstation 5000/200.
1060     If you want to find out more about Sprite in general, read
1061     <a href="http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/projects/sprite/retrospective.html">
1062     http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/projects/sprite/retrospective.html</a>.
1063    
1064     <p>
1065 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1066     <a href="20040711-sprite-1.png"><img src="20040711-sprite-1_small.png"></a>
1067     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1068     <a href="sprite-20040711.png"><img src="sprite-20040711_small.png"></a>
1069    
1070     <p>
1071 dpavlin 2 The following instructions should let you run Sprite in the emulator:
1072    
1073     <p>
1074     <ol>
1075 dpavlin 10 <li>Download the Sprite harddisk image:<pre>
1076     <a href="ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/ds5000.bt">ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/ds5000.bt</a>
1077 dpavlin 2 83973120 bytes, MD5 = ec84eeeb20fe77b758370d5e312e4a5e
1078    
1079     </pre>
1080     <li>Start the emulator with the following command line:<pre>
1081 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -X -E dec -e 3max -M128 -d ds5000.bt -j vmsprite -o ''</b>
1082 dpavlin 2
1083     </pre>
1084     </ol>
1085    
1086     <p>
1087     The first time you boot up with the disk image, you will be asked a number
1088     of questions regarding network settings. If you feel like entering correct
1089     values, then you should use the following:
1090     <p>
1091    
1092     <pre>
1093 dpavlin 10 Your machine's Ethernet address: 10:20:30:00:00:10
1094 dpavlin 2 Your machine's IP: 10.0.0.1
1095     Subnet mask: 0xff000000
1096     Gateway's Ethernet address: 60:50:40:30:20:10
1097     Gateway's IP: 10.0.0.254
1098     </pre>
1099    
1100     <p>
1101 dpavlin 10 Unfortunately, at the end of <a href="ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/boot.txt">ftp://ftp.es.embnet.org/pub/misc/TUHS/other_os/Sprite/boot.txt</a>,
1102     the following sad statement can be found:
1103 dpavlin 2 <pre>
1104     The bootable Sprite image is meant to be a demonstration of Sprite, not
1105     a robust Sprite system. There are several missing things, such as
1106     floating point and network support.
1107     </pre>
1108    
1109 dpavlin 10 <p>Once you are logged in as root, running <b><tt>xinit</tt></b> will
1110     start the X11 environment.
1111 dpavlin 2
1112    
1113    
1114    
1115    
1116 dpavlin 10
1117 dpavlin 2 <p><br>
1118     <a name="declinux"></a>
1119 dpavlin 10 <h3>Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation:</h3>
1120 dpavlin 2
1121 dpavlin 4 <font color="#ef0000">NOTE: This is experimental, and <i>extremely</i>
1122 dpavlin 2 unstable. During my tests, even pressing the wrong key during the install
1123 dpavlin 10 (for example the wrong cursor key) can cause a kernel Oops. My success
1124     rate is probably around 50%.
1125    
1126     <p>I <i>think</i> this has to do with interrupts from the serial controller.
1127 dpavlin 6 Hopefully using the <tt><b>-U</b></tt> command line option will reduce the
1128     risk for such crashes. (I haven't had time to come up with a clean
1129     solution to this yet; it feels like a buffer overflow in Linux' serial
1130     driver for the 5000/200, but it is also likely that it is a bug in GXemul.)
1131 dpavlin 2
1132 dpavlin 10 <p>Everything runs extremely slow. Even if you have a very fast host
1133     machine, an install attempt can still take several hours! </font>
1134    
1135 dpavlin 2 <p>
1136 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1137     <a href="20041212-debian_1.png"><img src="20041212-debian_1_small.gif"></a>
1138     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1139     <a href="20041212-debian_2.png"><img src="20041212-debian_2_small.gif"></a>
1140     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1141     <a href="20041213-debian_3.png"><img src="20041213-debian_3_small.gif"></a>
1142     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1143     <a href="20041213-debian_4.png"><img src="20041213-debian_4_small.gif"></a>
1144    
1145     <p>
1146 dpavlin 2 The following steps should let you install Debian GNU/Linux for DECstation
1147     onto a harddisk image:
1148    
1149     <p>
1150     <ol>
1151     <li>Create an empty harddisk image, which will be the root disk
1152     that Debian installs itself onto:<pre>
1153     $ <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=debian.img bs=1024 count=1 seek=2000000</b>
1154    
1155     </pre>
1156     <li>Download an install kernel:<pre>
1157 dpavlin 10 <a href="http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/r3k-kn02/boot.img">http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/r3k-kn02/boot.img</a>
1158 dpavlin 2
1159     </pre>
1160     <p>
1161     <li>For a text-mode installation, start the emulator like this:<pre>
1162 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -E dec -e 3max -U -M64 -o 'console=ttyS3' -d debian.img -O boot.img</b>
1163 dpavlin 2
1164     </pre>
1165 dpavlin 10 (If you want to, you can try <b><tt>-X</tt></b> instead of
1166     <b><tt>-o 'console=ttyS3'</tt></b> on the command line. This will
1167     cause Linux to use the graphical framebuffer. Unfortunately, Linux
1168     does not seem to have a driver for the DZ11 keyboard controller yet,
1169     so you cannot interact with the system. You will see the penguin in
1170     the upper lefthand corner while booting, and nicely rendered Unicode
1171     characters, but that's about it.)
1172     <p>
1173     You need to enter some values during the installation procedure, for
1174     example network settings. The following should work:<pre>
1175     DHCP: No, choose "<b>Configure network manually</b>"
1176     IP address: <b>10.0.0.1</b>
1177     Netmask: <b>255.0.0.0</b>
1178     Gateway: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
1179     Name server addresses: <b>10.0.0.254</b>
1180 dpavlin 2 </pre>
1181     <li>Once the first phase of the install has finished, the following command
1182     should let you boot into Debian, and perform post-install
1183     configuration:<pre>
1184 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -E dec -e 3max -U -M64 -o 'console=ttyS3' -d debian.img</b>
1185 dpavlin 2
1186 dpavlin 10 </pre>Note: All these steps take a lot of time, so you will have plenty
1187     of time to drink lots of cups of coffee.
1188     <p>
1189     <li>It seems that there's a problem with getting a login prompt on serial
1190     console (at least when I've done test installs), so when the
1191     installation is finished and you're supposed to get a login prompt,
1192     you need to press CTRL-C and type <b><tt>quit</tt></b>, and then:
1193     download a normal kernel (<i>not</i> a RAMDISK kernel):<pre>
1194     <a href="http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/cdrom/vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02">http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/cdrom/vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02</a>
1195 dpavlin 2
1196 dpavlin 10 </pre>and boot Debian using the following command line:<pre>
1197     $ <b>gxemul -E dec -e 3max -U -M64 -o \
1198 dpavlin 2 'console=ttyS3 root=/dev/sda1 rw init=/bin/sh' \
1199     -d debian.img vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02</b>
1200    
1201     </pre>
1202     You'll enter single-user mode. You need to add a line to
1203     /etc/inittab, to enable logins via serial console.<pre>
1204     sh-2.05b# <b>echo 'T3:23:respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS3 9600 vt100' >> /etc/inittab</b>
1205     sh-2.05b# <b>echo 'ttyS3' >> /etc/securetty</b>
1206     sh-2.05b# <b>sync; umount /</b>
1207 dpavlin 10 sh-2.05b# <b>halt</b>
1208 dpavlin 2 </pre>
1209     </ol>
1210    
1211     <p>
1212     The system should now be ready for everyday use.
1213    
1214     <p>
1215     Use this command to boot from the completely installed disk image:<pre>
1216 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -E dec -e 3max -U -M64 -o 'console=ttyS3' -d debian.img</b>
1217 dpavlin 2
1218     </pre>
1219    
1220     <p>
1221     [&nbsp;<font color="#ff0000">UPDATE 2005-01-19:</font>&nbsp;
1222     Kaj-Michael Lang noticed that the current CVS-version of
1223     <a href="http://www.linux-mips.org/">linux-mips</a> has
1224     support for keyboards now, on DECstation 5000/200, so it is
1225     possible to run Debian GNU/Linux with framebuffer/keyboard.
1226 dpavlin 6 (Add <b><tt>-X</tt></b> (or <b><tt>-XY2</tt></b>) and remove the
1227     <b><tt>console=ttyS3</tt></b> option.) He has made a kernel available here:
1228     <a href="http://home.tal.org/~milang/o2/kernels/vmlinux-2.4.29-rc2-r3k-mipsel-decstation">
1229     http://home.tal.org/~milang/o2/kernels/vmlinux-2.4.29-rc2-r3k-mipsel-decstation</a>
1230 dpavlin 2 It has other problems (ethernet doesn't seem to work, for
1231     example), but at least it doesn't Oops that often.&nbsp;]
1232    
1233    
1234    
1235    
1236    
1237    
1238     <p><br>
1239     <a name="declinuxredhat"></a>
1240 dpavlin 10 <h3>Redhat Linux for DECstation:</h3>
1241 dpavlin 2
1242     <font color="#ff0000">NOTE: This is experimental, and <i>extremely</i>
1243 dpavlin 6 unstable. Read the note about <b><tt>-U</tt></b> in the section on how to
1244     install Debian.
1245 dpavlin 2 </font>
1246    
1247 dpavlin 4 <p>
1248     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1249     <a href="20041129-redhat_mips.png"><img src="20041129-redhat_mips_small.png"></a>
1250 dpavlin 2
1251     <p>
1252     The following steps should let you run Redhat Linux for DECstation in GXemul:
1253    
1254     <p>
1255     <ol>
1256     <li>Download a kernel. This is a Debian kernel, but it works fine:<pre>
1257 dpavlin 10 <a href="http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/cdrom/vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02">http://ftp.egr.msu.edu/debian/dists/stable/main/installer-mipsel/current/images/cdrom/vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02</a>
1258 dpavlin 2
1259     </pre>
1260     <li>Download a root filesystem tree:<pre>
1261     <a href="ftp://ftp.uni-wuppertal.de/pub/linux/mips/mipsel-linux/root/mipsel-root-20011216.tgz">ftp://ftp.uni-wuppertal.de/pub/linux/mips/</a>
1262     <a href="ftp://ftp.uni-wuppertal.de/pub/linux/mips/mipsel-linux/root/mipsel-root-20011216.tgz">mipsel-linux/root/mipsel-root-20011216.tgz</a>
1263     19486676 bytes, md5 = 5bcb725c90209479cd7ead8ad0c4a414
1264    
1265     </pre>
1266     <li>This is the tricky part: Create an ext2 filesystem image called redhat.img using
1267     the filesystem tree you just downloaded. The disk image should have a MS-DOS
1268     partition table (!), and then one or more ext2 partitions.
1269     (Use loopback mount, or similar. This is probably easiest to do on a Linux host.)
1270     However, in order to actually boot the system you need to modify /etc/fstab.
1271     Change<pre>
1272     /dev/root / nfs defaults 1 1
1273     #/dev/sdc1 / ext2 defaults 1 1
1274     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
1275     none /dev/pts devpts mode=0622 0 0
1276    
1277     </pre>to<pre>
1278     #/dev/root / nfs defaults 1 1
1279     /dev/sda1 / ext2 defaults 1 1
1280     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
1281     none /dev/pts devpts mode=0622 0 0
1282    
1283     </pre>(Note sda1 instead of sdc1.)
1284     <p>
1285     <li>To boot Linux, start the emulator like this:<pre>
1286 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -E dec -e 3max -U -M128 -o \
1287 dpavlin 2 "console=ttyS3 root=/dev/sda1 ro" -d redhat.img vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02</b>
1288    
1289     </pre>
1290     </ol>
1291    
1292     <p>
1293     If you need to boot into single user mode, try the following:<pre>
1294 dpavlin 10 $ <b>gxemul -E dec -e 3max -U -o "console=ttyS3 root=/dev/sda1 rw init=/bin/sh" \
1295 dpavlin 2 -d redhat.img vmlinux-2.4.27-r3k-kn02</b>
1296    
1297     </pre>
1298    
1299 dpavlin 10 <p>Redhat Linux on DECstation in R3000 mode should work fine with dynamic
1300     binary translation, but if things are buggy, it can be disabled by
1301     using the <b><tt>-B</tt></b> command line option.
1302 dpavlin 2
1303     <p>
1304     NOTE: You can add <b>-X</b> and remove <b>console=ttyS3</b> from the command
1305     line, if you want to use a graphical framebuffer. Unfortunately, Linux
1306     doesn't have support for keyboards on DECstation 5000/200 yet, so you cannot
1307     actually interact with the sytem. :-(
1308    
1309     <p>
1310     [&nbsp;<font color="#ff0000">UPDATE 2005-01-22:</font>&nbsp;
1311     Read the 2005-01-19 update in the Debian section above, and then, if
1312     you do not need ethernet support, try Kaj-Michael Lang's kernel compiled
1313     from <a href="http://www.linux-mips.org/">linux-mips</a>' CVS.
1314     <a href="http://home.tal.org/~milang/o2/patches/vmlinux-2.4.29-rc2-r3k-mipsel-decstation">
1315     http://home.tal.org/~milang/o2/patches/vmlinux-2.4.29-rc2-r3k-mipsel-decstation</a>
1316     It should work with framebuffer/keyboard.&nbsp;]
1317    
1318    
1319    
1320    
1321    
1322    
1323     <p><br>
1324 dpavlin 10 <hr>
1325    
1326    
1327    
1328    
1329    
1330    
1331    
1332     <p><br>
1333 dpavlin 2 <a name="mach"></a>
1334 dpavlin 10 <h3>Mach/PMAX:</h3>
1335 dpavlin 2
1336     Read the following link if you want to know more about Mach in general:
1337     <a href="http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/mach/public/www/mach.html">
1338     http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/mach/public/www/mach.html</a>
1339    
1340     <p>
1341     <font color="#ff0000">NOTE: Mach for DECstation requires some files
1342     (called 'startup' and 'emulator') which I haven't been able to find
1343     on the web. Without these, Mach will not get very far. These
1344     installation instructions are preliminary.
1345     </font>
1346    
1347     <p>
1348 dpavlin 4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1349     <a href="20041018-mach_pmax.png"><img src="20041018-mach_pmax_small.png"></a>
1350    
1351     <p>
1352 dpavlin 2 The following steps should let you experiment with running Mach
1353     for DECstation in the emulator:
1354    
1355     <p>
1356     <ol>
1357     <li>Compile gxemul with cache emulation: (<b>NOTE: --enable-caches</b>)<pre>
1358     $ <b>./configure --enable-caches; make</b>
1359    
1360     </pre>
1361     <li>Download the pmax binary distribution for Mach 3.0:<pre>
1362     <a href="http://lost-contact.mit.edu/afs/athena/user/d/a/daveg/Info/Links/Mach/src/release/pmax.tar.Z">http://lost-contact.mit.edu/afs/athena/user/d/a/daveg/Info/Links/Mach/src/release/pmax.tar.Z</a>
1363     7263343 bytes, md5 = f9d76c240a6e169921a1df99ad560cc0
1364    
1365     </pre>
1366     <li>Extract the Mach kernel:<pre>
1367     $ <b>tar xfvz pmax.tar.Z pmax_mach/special/mach.boot.MK83.STD+ANY</b>
1368    
1369     </pre>
1370     <li>Create an empty disk image:<pre>
1371     $ <b>dd if=/dev/zero of=disk.img bs=1 count=512 seek=400000000</b>
1372    
1373     </pre>
1374     <li>Load the contents of pmax.tar.Z onto the disk image. This is
1375     complicated, and should be described in more detail some time.
1376     For now, use your imagination. (For example using OpenBSD/pmax:
1377     <i>disklabel -E rz1; newfs -O /dev/rz1a;
1378     mount /dev/rz1a /mnt; cd /mnt; download pmax.tar.Z using ftp;
1379     tar xzvf pmax.tar.Z; mv pmax_mach/* .; rmdir pmax_mach;
1380     mkdir mach_servers;
1381     cd mach_servers;
1382     cp ../etc/mach_init .;
1383     cp ../tests/test_service startup;
1384     dd if=/dev/zero of=paging_file bs=65536 count=400;
1385     cd /; sync; umount /mnt</i>)
1386     <p>
1387     <li>Start the emulator with the following command:<pre>
1388     $ <b>gxemul -E dec -e 3max -X -d disk.img \
1389     pmax_mach/special/mach.boot.MK83.STD+ANY</b>
1390    
1391     </pre>
1392     </ol>
1393    
1394    
1395    
1396    
1397    
1398    
1399    
1400 dpavlin 10 <p><br>
1401     <a name="openbsdsgiinstall"></a>
1402     <h3>OpenBSD/sgi:</h3>
1403 dpavlin 2
1404 dpavlin 10 <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/sgi.html">OpenBSD/sgi</a>
1405     can (almost) run in GXemul on an emulated O2 (SGI-IP32) with root on nfs.
1406    
1407     <p>
1408     &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
1409     <a href="20050617-openbsd-sgi.png"><img src="20050617-openbsd-sgi_small.png"></a>
1410    
1411     <p><font color="#ff0000">NOTE: I haven't succeeded all the way with
1412     this yet, and this shows/triggers many bugs in the emulator, but some of
1413     it works.</font>
1414    
1415     <p>GXemul does not yet emulate the AHC PCI SCSI controller in the O2. (I have
1416     mailed Adaptec several times, asking for documentation, but never received
1417     any reply.) OpenBSD/sgi can still run, as long as it doesn't use SCSI. For
1418     a simple test with the ramdisk (install) kernel, try dowloading<pre>
1419     <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd</a>
1420    
1421     </pre>and run <b><tt>gxemul -E sgi -e o2 bsd.rd</tt></b>.
1422    
1423     <p>It might also be possible to netboot. Another emulated machine must
1424     then be used as the nfs root server, and the emulated O2 machine must boot
1425     as a <a href="http://www.openbsd.org/cgi-bin/man.cgi?query=diskless&manpath=OpenBSD+Current&format=html">diskless</a>
1426     client. Performing this setup is quite time consuming, but necessary:
1427    
1428     <p>
1429     <ol>
1430     <li>First of all, the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" machine must be set up.
1431     This needs to have a 800 MB <tt>/tftpboot</tt> partition.
1432     <a href="#netbsdinstall">Install NetBSD/pmax 2.0.2 from CDROM</a>
1433     inside the emulator. (Don't forget to add the extra partition!)
1434     <p>
1435     <li>Configure the nfs server machine to act as an nfs server.
1436     Start up the emulated DECstation:<pre>
1437     $ <b>gxemul -M64 -Edec -e3max -d nbsd_pmax.img</b>
1438     </pre>and enter the following commands as <tt>root</tt>
1439     inside the emulator:
1440     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1441     <b>echo hostname=server &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1442     echo ifconfig_le0=\"inet 10.0.0.2\" &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1443     echo nameserver 10.0.0.254 &gt;&gt; /etc/resolv.conf
1444     echo 10.0.0.254 &gt; /etc/mygate
1445     echo /tftpboot -maproot=root 10.0.0.1 &gt; /etc/exports
1446     echo rpcbind=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1447     echo nfs_server=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1448     echo mountd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1449     echo bootparamd=YES &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf
1450     printf "client root=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot \\\n swap=10.0.0.2:/tftpboot/swap\n" &gt; /etc/bootparams
1451     echo "10:20:30:00:00:10 client" &gt; /etc/ethers
1452     echo 10.0.0.1 client &gt; /etc/hosts
1453     reboot</b>
1454     </pre></td></tr></table>
1455     <li>Start the DECstation emulation again, and download the
1456     OpenBSD/sgi distribution:<br>(NOTE: This
1457     takes quite some time, even if you have a fast network connection.)
1458     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1459     <b>cd /tftpboot; ftp -i ftp.se.openbsd.org</b>
1460     (log in as anonymous...)
1461     <b>cd pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi
1462     mget b* c* e* g* m*
1463     quit
1464     sh
1465     for a in *.tgz; do echo $a; tar zxfp $a; done
1466     echo 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot / nfs rw 0 0 &gt; /tftpboot/etc/fstab
1467     dd if=/dev/zero of=swap bs=1024 count=32768
1468     halt</b>
1469     </pre></td></tr></table>
1470     <li>Download the OpenBSD/sgi GENERIC and RAMDISK kernels:<pre>
1471     <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd</a>
1472     MD5 (bsd) = f16eaf3dcbd51876db7c25f70e6d8a08
1473     <a href="ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd">ftp://ftp.se.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/3.7/sgi/bsd.rd</a>
1474     MD5 (bsd.rd) = 4843e6139d8dd04b03d5f0e33e9a4f7b
1475    
1476     </pre>
1477     <li>Create a configuration file called <tt>config_client</tt>:
1478     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1479     <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul
1480     !
1481     ! Configuration file for running OpenBSD/sgi diskless with
1482     ! a NetBSD/pmax machine as the nfs server.
1483     !
1484     ! This config file is for the client.</font>
1485    
1486     <b>emul(
1487     net(
1488     add_remote("127.0.0.1:12444") </b>! the server<b>
1489     local_port(12445) </b>! the client<b>
1490     )
1491    
1492     machine(
1493     name("client machine")
1494     serial_nr(1)
1495    
1496     type("sgi")
1497     subtype("o2")
1498    
1499     </b>! load("bsd")<b>
1500     load("bsd.rd")
1501     )
1502     )</b>
1503     </pre></td></tr></table>
1504     ... and another configuration file for the server,
1505     <tt>config_server</tt>:
1506     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1507     <font color="#2020cf">!!gxemul</font>
1508     <b>emul(
1509     net(
1510     local_port(12444) </b>! the server<b>
1511     add_remote("127.0.0.1:12445") </b>! the client<b>
1512     )
1513    
1514     machine(
1515     name("nfs server")
1516     serial_nr(2)
1517    
1518     type("dec")
1519     subtype("5000/200")
1520    
1521     disk("nbsd_pmax.img")
1522     )
1523     )</b>
1524     </pre></td></tr></table>
1525     <li>Boot the "<tt>nfs server</tt>" and the OpenBSD/sgi
1526     "<tt>client machine</tt>" as two separate emulator instances:<pre>
1527     in one xterm:
1528     $ <b>gxemul @config_server</b>
1529    
1530     and then, in another xterm:
1531     $ <b>gxemul @config_client</b>
1532    
1533     </pre>
1534     <li>In the OpenBSD/sgi window, choose "S" (for Shell), and type:
1535     <table border="0"><tr><td><tt>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</tt></td><td><pre>
1536     <b>ifconfig mec0 10.0.0.1; route add default 10.0.0.254
1537     mount -v 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot /mnt
1538     cd /mnt/dev; ./MAKEDEV all; cd /; umount /mnt
1539     halt</b>
1540     </pre></td></tr></table>
1541     </ol>
1542    
1543     <p>You might want to log in as <tt>root</tt> on the server machine, and
1544     run <tt>tcpdump -lnvv</tt> or similar, to see that what the client machine
1545     actually does on the network. The <tt>MAKEDEV</tt> script takes almost
1546     forever, so be patient.
1547    
1548     <p><font color="#ff0000">NOTE: Everything up to this point should work.
1549     However, the next step (in gray) doesn't actually work:</font>
1550    
1551     <p><font color="#888888">Once everything has been set up correctly, change
1552     <tt>bsd.rd</tt> in <tt>config_client</tt> to just <tt>bsd</tt> (the GENERIC
1553     kernel). It should now be possible to boot OpenBSD/sgi using the NetBSD/pmax
1554     nfs server. (When asked for "<tt>root device :</tt>" on the OpenBSD machine,
1555     enter <tt><b>mec0</b></tt>.)</font>
1556    
1557     <p><font color="#ff0000">But it doesn't work. Probably because GXemul's
1558     implementation of the mec (ethernet card used in the O2) is too much of
1559     a quick hack. For now, use the <tt>bsd.rd</tt> kernel, and (at every
1560     boot) type:</font><pre>
1561     <b>s</b> (for Shell)
1562     <b>ifconfig mec0 10.0.0.1; route add default 10.0.0.254</b>
1563     <b>mount -v 10.0.0.2:/tftpboot /mnt</b>
1564     <b>cd /mnt; usr/sbin/chroot .</b>
1565     <b>sh etc/rc</b>
1566     </pre>
1567    
1568     <p><font color="#ff0000">This will not cause OpenBSD to be booted
1569     normally, but at least a few basic things will work.
1570     By the way, the emulator performs so poorly, that you will have time to
1571     fetch several cups of coffee for each of the steps above.</font>
1572    
1573    
1574    
1575    
1576    
1577    
1578    
1579    
1580 dpavlin 2 </p>
1581    
1582     </body>
1583     </html>

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